Tracing the roots of the piano to the very beginning of consciousness, when man first became aware of sound.
1781, German Action
“German action,” or Prellmechanik, ascribed to Johann Stein, first conceived as early as 1769 and refined during the 1770s. By 1781, hammers mounted directly on the keys.
Anton Diabelli (1781 – 1858): Austrian Publisher, Composer – Classical Period
Nicolò Paganini (1782 – 1840): Italian Composer, Violinist – Classical Period
1785, Érard Dispensation
The Luthiers of Paris—losing business due to Érard’s success—tried to shut him down as a nonmember of the guild. As a result, Érard was awarded a special dispensation from Louis XVI to continue making instruments.
Friedrich Kalkbrenner (1785 – 1849): German born French Pianist, Composer, Teacher, Piano Manufacturer – Classical Period
- Studied at the Paris Conservatoire.
- Wrote Méthode pour Apprendre le Piano à l'aide du Guide-Mains Op. 108 (1831) which included the use of the chiroplast or hand guide, (invented by Johan Bernhard Logier), to aid with hand positioning, it came to be known as “Kalkbrenner’s Technique.”
- Partner in Pleyel’s Fortepiano Factory.
- Head of French Pianoforte School.
- Taught Camille-Marie Stamaty (whose own pupils were Moreau Gottschalk and Camille Saint-Saëns), Arabella Goddard and Marie-Felicite-Denise Pleyel.
- Dekeyser, Paul. "Kalkbrenner, Frédéric [Friedrich Wilhelm Michael]." Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press, 2007 – 2015. Web. 14 Sept. 2015.
- "Friedrich Kalkbrenner." Palace Pianos. Palace Pianos, 2008 – 2015. Web. 15 Sept. 2015.
Friedrich Wieck (1785 – 1873): German Piano Teacher, Writer – Classical Period
- Among his writings are Piano and Song (Clavier und Gesang; Didaktisches und Polemisches) (1853), which focuses on elementary teaching, and Piano and Song How to Teach, How to Learn and How to Form a Judgment of Musical Performances.
- He taught Robert Schumann, Hans von Bülow, and his daughter Clara Schumann.
1786, Carl Maria von Weber
Carl Maria von Weber (1786 – 1826): German Composer, Conductor, Pianist, Critic – Romantic Period
Carl Czerny (1791 – 1857): Austrian Piano Teacher, Composer, Pianist, Theorist, Historian – Classical Period
- Taught by Beethoven and Hummel.
- Absorbed some of Clementi’s teaching methods as his own.
- Noted for his piano technical exercises.
- Among his many technical works are School of Velocity (Études de la vélocité Op. 299), Nouveau Gradus ad Parnassum Op. 822 (1854 – 46 studies), and Pianoforte-Schule, op.500.
- Some of his pupils: Franz Liszt, Sigismund Thalberg, and Stephen Heller.
- Lindeman, Stephen D., and George Barth. "Czerny, Carl." Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press, 2007 – 2015. Web. 16 Sept. 2015.
- "Biography of Carl Czerny." Hanon-Online. Hanon-Online, 2010 – 2015. Web. 16 Sept. 2015.
- "Carl Czerny: in the Shadow of Beethoven." The Free Library. Queen’s Quarterly and Gale, Cengage Learning, 1997. Web. 16 Sept. 2015.
- "Piano Studies by Czerny." Piano Exercises. Piano Exercises and Riff Spot, 2012. Web. 16 Sept. 2015.
1792, Érard London
Due to the French Revolution, Érard moved to London in 1792 and opened a shop (though records showing he began doing business as early as 1786); along with pianos, he began manufacturing harps in which he made many improvements and was awarded many patents.
- "Sébastian Érard (1752)." Butchoff. Butchoff Antiques, 2012. Web. 16 Sept. 2015.
Lowell Mason (1792 – 1872): American Sacred Music Composer, Anthologist, Music Educator
- Composed over 1600 Hymns and held the title "Father of American Church Music."
- He served as the president of the Händel and Haydn Society.
- Music Director of the Essex Street Church, the Park Street Church, and the Hanover Street Church (Bowdoin Street Church).
- In 1828 began teaching children music adapting a similar philosophy as Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, a swiss reformer who believed that children learn better through direct experience than rote instruction .
- In 1832 He formed Boston Academy of Music and served as its head. The success of this Academy led him to become an advocate for music instruction in public schools.
- Served as Superintendent of Music for the Boston Schools. In support of his work he wrote Manual of the Boston Academy of Music (1834) and created teacher training seminars known as Musical Convention from 1836 - 1851.
- In 1855 was awarded an honorary doctorate from NYU.
- Eskew. Harry, and Carol A. Pemberton. "Lowell Mason." Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press, 2007 – 2016. Web. 9 Oct 2015.
- "Lowell Mason." HymnTime. HymnTime.Com, 28 Nov. 2015. Web. 9 Oct. 2015.
- "Lowell Mason." Hymnary. Hymnary.Org, n.d. Web. 9 Oct. 2015.
- Pratt, Michael, Dr. "A Biography of Lowell Mason: The Father of American Music Education." MicahelPratt.Wordpress. Pratt Music Co., 4 Sept. 2009. Web. 9 Oct. 2015.