MUSIC THROUGH THE AGES

Development Of The Piano: A Timeline
Tracing the roots of the piano to the very beginning of consciousness,
when man first became aware of sound.
Page 8 of 28 pages

Bust of Niccolò Paganini
by French Sculptor David d'Angers. [ 1 ]

Nicolò Paganini (1782 – 1840) — Italian Composer, Violinist – Classical Period


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Selbymay.  "Bust of Nicolò Paganini by French Sculptor David d’Angers (1830-1833). Exhibited in David d’Angers Gallery, Angers, France."  Photograph. Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 18 November 2011.  Web.  15 Sept. 2015.  CC BY-SA 3.0

Portrait of Friedrich Wieck at the Age of 45. [ 1 ]

Friedrich Wieck (1785 – 1873) — German Piano Teacher, Writer – Classical Period

  • Among his writings are Piano and Song (Clavier und Gesang; Didaktisches und Polemisches) (1853), which focuses on elementary teaching, and Piano and Song How to Teach, How to Learn and How to Form a Judgment of Musical Performances.
  • He taught Robert Schumann, Hans von Bülow, and his daughter Clara Schumann.


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Deschreiber.  "Painting Portrait of Friedrich Wieck at age 45."  Photograph.  Original in Robert-Schumann-Haus Zwickau, Germany.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 25 Sept. 2011.  Web.  21 Sept. 2015.  Public Domain. 

Friedrich Kalkbrenner (1785 – 1849) — German born French Pianist, Composer, Teacher, Piano Manufacturer – Classical Period.

  • Studied at the Paris Conservatoire.
  • Wrote Méthode pour Apprendre le Piano à l'aide du Guide-Mains Op. 108 (1831) which included the use of the chiroplast or hand guide, (invented by Johan Bernhard Logier), to aid with hand positioning, it came to be known as “Kalkbrenner’s Technique.”
  • Partner in Pleyel’s Fortepiano Factory.
  • Head of French Pianoforte School.
  • Taught Camille-Marie Stamaty (whose own pupils were Moreau Gottschalk and Camille Saint-Saëns), Arabella Goddard and Marie-Felicite-Denise Pleyel.

Portrait Detail of Friedrich Kalkbrenner by Auguste Bry, Original Drawing by Alphonse Farcy. [ 1 ]


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Lieberknecht, Otfried.  "Portrait detail of Friedrich Kalkbrenner by Auguste Bry, original drawing by Alphonse Farcy."  Scan.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 8 May 2006.  Web.  9 Oct. 2015.  Public Domain. 
Additional References:
  • Dekeyser, Paul.  "Kalkbrenner, Frédéric [Friedrich Wilhelm Michael]."  Oxford Music Online.  Oxford University Press, 2007 – 2015.  Web.  14 Sept. 2015.
  • "Friedrich Kalkbrenner."  Palace Pianos.  Palace Pianos, 2008 – 2015.  Web.  15 Sept. 2015.

The Luthiers of Paris—losing business due to Érard’s success—tried to shut him down as a nonmember of the guild. As a result, Érard was awarded a special dispensation from Louis XVI to continue making instruments.

Today on the 5th of February, 1785, the King of Versailles states, that sir Sebastian Érard is permitted to enhance the quality of the piano-forte, by means of by him invented methods, which has already resulted in this instrument being favoured above the ones made in England […]
Signed: Louis XVI, Co-signed: Baron de Breteuil [ 1 ]


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Janmaat, Fritz.  "About Erard."  Maison Erard.  Maison Erard, n.d.  Web.  15 Sept. 2015.

Portrait of Carl Maria von Weber
by Ferdinand Schimon, 1825. [ 1 ]

Carl Maria von Weber (1786 – 1826) — German Composer, Conductor, Pianist, Critic – Romantic Period


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Schimon, Ferdinand, and uploaded by Squigly2971.  Carl Maria von Weber.  1825.  Carl Maria von Weber House, Dresden.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 12 Sept. 2012.  Web.  15 Sept. 2015.  Public Domain. 

Carl Czerny (1791 – 1857) — Austrian Piano Teacher, Composer, Pianist, Theorist, Historian – Classical Period

  • Taught by Beethoven and Hummel.
  • Absorbed some of Clementi’s teaching methods as his own.
  • Noted for his piano technical exercises.
  • Among his many technical works are School of Velocity (Études de la vélocité Op. 299), Nouveau Gradus ad Parnassum Op. 822 (1854 – 46 studies), and Pianoforte-Schule, op.500.
  • Some of his pupils: Franz Liszt, Sigismund Thalberg, and Stephen Heller.

Portrait of Carl Czerny 
Lithograph by Josef Kriehuber, Photographed by Peter Geymayer, 1833. [ 1 ]


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Gede~commonswiki.  "Kriehuber, Josef, and photograph by Peter Geymayer of Carl Czerny, 1833."  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 2 Oct. 2005.  Web.  16 Sept. 2015.  Public Domain.
Additional References:
  • Lindeman, Stephen D., and George Barth.  "Czerny, Carl."  Oxford Music Online.  Oxford University Press, 2007 – 2015.  Web.  16 Sept. 2015.
  • "Biography of Carl Czerny."  Hanon-Online.  Hanon-Online, 2010 – 2015.  Web.  16 Sept. 2015.
  • "Carl Czerny: in the Shadow of Beethoven."  The Free Library.  Queen’s Quarterly and Gale, Cengage Learning, 1997.  Web.  16 Sept. 2015.
  • "Piano Studies by Czerny."  Piano Exercises.  Piano Exercises and Riff Spot, 2012.  Web.  16 Sept. 2015.

Caricature of Rossini
from Le Hanneton Magazine by H. Mailly, 1867. [ 1 ]

Gioachino Rossini (1792 – 1868) — Italian Composer – Late Classical Period / Early Romantic Period


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Mailly, H, and uploaded by Dnlpvic.  Caricature of Rossini.  4 July 1867.  Bibliothéque Nationale de France from Le Hanneton Magazine, France.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 12 Feb. 2006.  Web.  16 Sept. 2015.  Public Domain. 

Lowell Mason (1792 – 1872) — American Sacred Music Composer, Anthologist, Music Educator

  • Composed over 1600 Hymns and held the title "Father of American Church Music."
  • He served as the president of the Handel and Haydn Society.
  • Music Director of the Essex Street Church, the Park Street Church, and the Hanover Street Church (Bowdoin Street Church).
  • In 1828 began teaching children music adapting a similar philosophy as Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, a swiss reformer who believed that children learn better through direct experience than rote instruction .
  • In 1832 He formed Boston Academy of Music and served as its head. The success of this Academy led him to become an advocate for music instruction in public schools.
  • Served as Superintendent of Music for the Boston Schools. In support of his work he wrote Manual of the Boston Academy of Music (1834) and created teacher training seminars known as Musical Convention from 1836 - 1851.
  • In 1855 was awarded an honorary doctorate from NYU.

Portrait of Lowell Mason. [ 1 ]


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RJHall.  "Portrait of Lowell Mason."  Scan.  Wikipedia.Org.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 23 March 2005.  Web. 9 Oct. 2015.  Public Domain. 
Additional References:
  • Eskew. Harry, and Carol A. Pemberton.  "Lowell Mason."  Oxford Music Online.  Oxford University Press, 2007 – 2016.  Web.  9 Oct 2015.
  • "Lowell Mason."  HymnTime.  HymnTime.Com, 28 Nov. 2015.  Web.  9 Oct. 2015.
  • "Lowell Mason."  Hymnary.  Hymnary.Org, n.d.  Web.  9 Oct. 2015.
  • Pratt, Michael, Dr.  "A Biography of Lowell Mason: The Father of American Music Education."  MicahelPratt.Wordpress.  Pratt Music Co., 4 Sept. 2009.  Web.  9 Oct. 2015.

Due to the French Revolution, Érard moved to London in 1792 and opened a shop (though records showing he began doing business as early as 1786); along with pianos, he began manufacturing harps in which he made many improvements and was awarded many patents.


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Additional References:
  • "Sébastian Érard (1752)."  Butchoff.  Butchoff Antiques, 2012.  Web.  16 Sept. 2015.

Ignaz Moscheles (1794 – 1870) — Prague Born Pianist, Conductor, Composer, Teacher – Late Classical / Early Romantic Period

  • Studied piano at a young age and was taught by B. D. Weber, director of the Prague Conservatory from 1804 - 1808.
  • In 1808, moved to Vienna to be more connected to his musical idol Beethoven, as he felt: “Beethoven is great—whom should I call greater?”  There, studied under Johann Georg Albrechtsberger (1736 – 1809) and Antonio Salieri (1750 – 1825).
  • Circa 1814, Beethoven asked him to create the piano arrangement for his opera Fidelio.
  • Became conductor and eventually co-director of the Royal Philharmonic Society.
  • “Teaching was a central part of Moscheles’ career from his early years in Vienna until his death in Leipzig in 1870. The list of Moscheles’ students […] is long and impressive. For example, Moscheles calculated that in just one year, 1835, he had given in London ‘1457 lessons, of which 1328 were paid, and 129 gratis.’ If one […] extrapolates this to a teaching career of fifty years, the numbers are truly staggering.” [ 2 ]
  • Taught at the London Royal Academy of Music and Leipzig Conservatory, as well as private lessons and other cities.
  • Some of his pupils: Camille Pleyel, Sigismond Thalberg, and Felix Mendelssohn.
  • In his work Method of Methods (Méthode des Méthodes) (1839/1840) co-written with Francis Joseph Fétis, Moscheles articulates on piano technique, music theory and “a wide sampling of views, opinions and approaches to the piano and its literature from most of the major teachers of the era.” [ 3 ]

Portrait of Ignaz Moscheles by Godefroy Engelmann and Pierre Roch Vigneron, c. 1820 – 1840. [ 1 ]


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Mu.  "Portrait of Ignaz Moscheles by Godefroy Engelmann and Pierre Roch Vigneron, c. 1820 – 1840."  Scan.  Located in the New York Public Library’s Digital Gallery, New York.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 1 March 2011.  Web.  9 Oct. 2015.  Public Domain. 
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Kroll, Mark.  Ignaz Moscheles and the Changing World of Musical Europe.  Woodbridge: The Boydell Press, 2014: pg. 166.  Google Books.  Web.  16 Sept. 2015.
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Kroll, Mark.  Ignaz Moscheles and the Changing World of Musical Europe.  Woodbridge: The Boydell Press, 2014: pg. 192.  Google Books.  Web.  16 Sept. 2015.
Additional References:
  • Chambers, Jr., Robert W.  "Ignaz Moscheles (1794-1870)."  Moscheles.  Moscheles, 2004.  Web.  16 Sept. 2016.
Page 8 of 28 pages

[ CLOSE ]
 

Additional References:
  • Mastehead Image: O’Donnell, Dylan.  "Piano Strings."  Photograph.  Deography.  Dylan O’Donnell, 1 Nov. 2010.  Web.  18 June 2015.  Public Domain.
  • Mandalatrece, Jim Doney.  "History of an Ascended Master, His Connection with Essenes, and The Secrecy of The Kanon."  ThaKanon.  Jim Doney Mandalatrece, n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • Blaise, Gary.  "The Early String Keyboards."  Gary Blaise.  Gary Blaise Early Keyboard Instruments, n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "History of Classical Music."  Naxos.  Naxos Digital Services Ltd., n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "History of the Piano."  Piano Technicians Guild.  Piano Technicians Guild, Inc. n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "Development of the Piano."  Bluebook of Piano.  Bluebook of Pianos, 1933 – 2015.  18 June 2015.
  • Estrella, Steven G.  "Stylistic Timeline of Music History."  Steven Estrella.  Steven G. Estrella, 2013.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "The History of Graphical Music Notation."  Block Museum.  Mary and Leigh Block Museum of Art, n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "The Piano Time Line: A Chronological History."  Concert Pitch Piano.  Concert Pitch Piano Services, 2000 – 2015.  Web.  18 June. 2015.
  • "History of the Piano."  Piano Tuners.  The UK Piano Pages, 1996 – 2015.  Web.  18 June. 2015.
  • Weinstock, Ron.  "A Personal List of Ten Great Blues Pianists."  In a Blue Mood.  In a Blue Mood, 25 Sept. 2009.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "Romantic Music."  Essential Humanities.  Essential Humanities, 2008 – 2013.  Web.  19 June 2015.
  • "List of Romantic-Era Composers."  Wikipedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 15 Sept. 2015.  Web.  18 Sept. 2015.
  • Duchen, Jessica.  "Top 20: The World’s Greatest Pianists."  Sinfini Music.  Sinfini Music, 23 April 2014.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • Solomon, Jon.  "The Ten Best Jazz Pianists of All Time."  Westword.  Denver Westword, LLC., 27 Aug. 2013.  18 June 2015.
  • Sturm, Connie Arrau, Debra Brubaker Burs, and Anita Jackson, eds.  "Annotated Bibliography of Sources on the History of Piano Technique and Piano Pedagogy."  Piano Technique.  Piano Technique.Net, n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • Groves Music Online for Music Research.  Oxford Music Online.  Oxford University Press, 2007 – 2015.  Web.  June – December 2015.
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