MUSIC THROUGH THE AGES

Development Of The Piano: A Timeline
Tracing the roots of the piano to the very beginning of consciousness,
when man first became aware of sound.
Page 9 of 28 pages

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Ritmüller piano company established by Andreas Georg Ritmüller (b. Unknown – c. 1800) and his son, Gotlieb Wilhelm Ritmüller (1770 – 1829) in Gottingen, Germany, originally produced guitars and harps before eventually devoting much of their production on pianos in 1795.

Adolf Bernhard Marx (1795 – 1866) — German Music Theorist, Critic, Pedagogue

  • Considered “one of the most influential theorist[s] of the 19th century, Marx named and codified sonata form.” [ 2 ]
  • Editor of Berliner Allgemeine Musikalische Zeitung.
  • Professor musicology at the University of Berlin and then later director of music.
  • Among his many writings, his most famous was Die Lehre von der Musikalischen Komposition (1837/1838, 1845 and 1847).
  • Co-founded what is now known as Stern Conservatory with Theodor Kullak and Julius Stern.

Lithograph of A. B. Marx,
19th Century. [ 1 ]


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Music Division, The New York Public Library.  "Lithograph of A. B. Marx, 19th C."  The New York Public Library Digital Collections.  The New York Public Library, n.d.  Web.  16 Oct. 2015.  Public Domain.
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Pederson, Sanna.  "Marx, (Friedrich Heinrich) Adolf Bernhard [Samuel Moses]."  Oxford Music Online.  Oxford University Press, 2007 – 2015.  Web.  16 Sept. 2015.

Érard returned to Paris.

Portrait of Franz Schubert
by Wilhelm August Rieder, 1825. [ 1 ]

Franz Schubert (1797 – 1828) — Austrian Composer – Late Classical / Early Romantic Period


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Rieder, Wilhelm August, and uploaded by Greenhorn~commonswiki.  Franz Schubert.  1825.  Schubert Geburtshaus, Vienna.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 20 May 2006.  Web.  16 Sept. 2015.  Public Domain. 

Henri Bertini (1798 – 1876) — London Born French Pianist, Composer – Classical Period

  • Born into a family of musicians, his brother (who was himself a student of Muzio Clementi) was his primary teacher.
  • Though considered a virtuoso pianist with some success, he is best remembered for his piano studies in technique.  Among the 20 books comprising 500 études, Le Rudiment de Pianiste and Methode de Piano Elementaire et Facile are the most famous

Portrait of Henri Bertini by Marie Alexandre Adolphe, c. 1850. [ 1 ]


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Alophe, Marie-Alexandre, and uploaded by Charvex.  "Portrait of Henri Bertini by Marie Alexandre Adolphe, c. 1850."  Scan.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 28 Dec. 2007.  Web.  9 Oct. 2015.  Public Domain. 
Additional References:
  • Johnson, Keith.  "Henri Bertini."  AllMusic.  All Media Network, LLC., n.d.  Web.  16 Sept. 2016.
  • "Henri Bertini: 1798 – 1876 Piano Virtuoso, Music Composer."  Google Translate.  n.p., n.d.  Web.  16 Sept. 2015.

For More Info, View the Brodmann Piano Tour; Other Piano Brands.
Brodmann piano company established by Prussian born Joseph Brodmann (c. 1771 – 1848) began producing pianos, borrowing from the influence of Ferdinand Hofmann and Anton Walter.

Engraving of Hector Berlioz from the New York Public Library Archives. [ 1 ]

Hector Berlioz (1803 – 1869) — French Composer – Romantic Period


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OttawaAC.  "Engraving of Hector Berlioz (1803-1869)."  Engraving.  Original in the Historical and Public Figure Collection at the New York Public Library Archives.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 29 Aug. 2011.  Web.  16 Sept. 2015.  Public Domain. 

Henri Herz (1803 – 1888) — Austrian Pianist, Composer, Teacher, Piano Manufacturer

  • A prodigy from a musical family, Herz studied piano with his father and the organist Daniel Hünten.
  • In 1816, he attended the Paris Conservatoire (later teaching there) and studied with Louis-Barthélémy Pradher, Victor Dourlen, and Antonín Reicha.
  • Asked by Franz Liszt to compose a variation to Hexaméron; other contributors were Frédéric Chopin, Carl Czerny, Johann Peter Pixis, and Sigismond Thalberg.
  • Along with his brother Jacques Simon Herz (1794 – 1880), he founded the École Spéciale de Piano de Paris.
  • As a pedagogue, he is known for his finger exercises.
  • Partnering in a piano-manufacturing firm, he established his own piano factory in 1851 and produced pianos that were considered equal to Érard and Pleyel.  His piano was awarded first prize in 1855 at the Paris Exposition.
  • In 1836, he built a concert hall.

Portrait of Henri Herz by Achillle Devéria, 1832. [ 1 ]


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Mu.  "Portrait of Henri Herz, drawn by Achillle Devéria, 1832."  Scan of a Drawing.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 8 March 2009.  Web.  9 Oct. 2015.  Public Domain. 
Additional References:
  • Lindeman, Stephen D.  "Herz, Henri [Heinrich]."  Oxford Music Online.  Oxford University Press, 2007 – 2015.  Web.  16 Sept. 2015.
  • Johnson, Keith.  "Henri Herz."  AllMusic.  All Media Network, LLC., n.d.  Web.  16 Sept. 2015.

Portrait of Johann Strauss I. [ 1 ]

Johann Strauss I (1804 – 1849) — Austrian Composer, Violinist (Founder of the ‘Strauss Waltz Dynasty’) – Romantic Period


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Chris73.  "Johann Strauss I."  Scan.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 7 Dec. 2004.  Web.  16 Sept. 2015.  Public Domain. 

Portrait of Johan Friedrich Franz Burgmüller, c. 1840. [ 1 ]

Friedrich Burgmüller (1806 – 1874) — German Composer, Pianist – Romantic Period


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Unknown, and uploaded by Jacqke.  Portrait of the Composer Johann Friedrich Franz Burgmüller (1806-1874).  c. 1840.  Private Collection.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Commons, Inc., 10 July 2014.  Web.  16 Sept. 2015.  Public Domain. 
Page 9 of 28 pages

[ CLOSE ]
 

Additional References:
  • Mastehead Image: O’Donnell, Dylan.  "Piano Strings."  Photograph.  Deography.  Dylan O’Donnell, 1 Nov. 2010.  Web.  18 June 2015.  Public Domain.
  • Mandalatrece, Jim Doney.  "History of an Ascended Master, His Connection with Essenes, and The Secrecy of The Kanon."  ThaKanon.  Jim Doney Mandalatrece, n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • Blaise, Gary.  "The Early String Keyboards."  Gary Blaise.  Gary Blaise Early Keyboard Instruments, n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "History of Classical Music."  Naxos.  Naxos Digital Services Ltd., n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "History of the Piano."  Piano Technicians Guild.  Piano Technicians Guild, Inc. n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "Development of the Piano."  Bluebook of Piano.  Bluebook of Pianos, 1933 – 2015.  18 June 2015.
  • Estrella, Steven G.  "Stylistic Timeline of Music History."  Steven Estrella.  Steven G. Estrella, 2013.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "The History of Graphical Music Notation."  Block Museum.  Mary and Leigh Block Museum of Art, n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "The Piano Time Line: A Chronological History."  Concert Pitch Piano.  Concert Pitch Piano Services, 2000 – 2015.  Web.  18 June. 2015.
  • "History of the Piano."  Piano Tuners.  The UK Piano Pages, 1996 – 2015.  Web.  18 June. 2015.
  • Weinstock, Ron.  "A Personal List of Ten Great Blues Pianists."  In a Blue Mood.  In a Blue Mood, 25 Sept. 2009.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "Romantic Music."  Essential Humanities.  Essential Humanities, 2008 – 2013.  Web.  19 June 2015.
  • "List of Romantic-Era Composers."  Wikipedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 15 Sept. 2015.  Web.  18 Sept. 2015.
  • Duchen, Jessica.  "Top 20: The World’s Greatest Pianists."  Sinfini Music.  Sinfini Music, 23 April 2014.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • Solomon, Jon.  "The Ten Best Jazz Pianists of All Time."  Westword.  Denver Westword, LLC., 27 Aug. 2013.  18 June 2015.
  • Sturm, Connie Arrau, Debra Brubaker Burs, and Anita Jackson, eds.  "Annotated Bibliography of Sources on the History of Piano Technique and Piano Pedagogy."  Piano Technique.  Piano Technique.Net, n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • Groves Music Online for Music Research.  Oxford Music Online.  Oxford University Press, 2007 – 2015.  Web.  June – December 2015.
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