MUSIC THROUGH THE AGES

Development Of The Piano: A Timeline
Tracing the roots of the piano to the very beginning of consciousness,
when man first became aware of sound.
PEDAGOGY & THEORY
Page 7 of 7 pages

Dimitry Kabalevsky at the Piano. [ 1 ]

Dmitry Kabalevsky (1904 – 1987) — Russian Composer, Teacher – 20th Century Period


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RobT Amenia.  "Dimitry Kabalevsky."  Photograph.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 5 Aug. 2013.  Web. 4 Nov. 2015.  CC BY-SA 3.0.

Frances Clark (1905 – 1998) — American Piano Pedagogue

  • AB degree from Kalamazoo College with graduate studies in music from University of Michigan, The Juilliard School, the Paris Conservatory, and the American Academy at Fontainebleau.
  • Trained under Nadia Bulanger and Isidor Philipp in Paris, and Ernest Hutcheson and Guy Maier from Julliard.
  • Started the first four-year piano pedagogy degree program in the United States at Kalamazoo College (Louise Gross was a student of the first class).
  • Along with Louise Goss, Clark was director of piano and piano pedagogy program at Westminster Choir College in New Jersey.
  • Co-founded (along with Louise Goss) The New School for Music Study in Princeton.
  • Pioneer of group piano teaching. Wrote Questions and Answers (1992) describing her philosophical approaches to group piano lessons.
  • The mission statement of The Frances Clark Center for Keyboard Pedagogy reads in part “to extend the influence of her [Francis Clark] inclusive and revolutionary philosophy of music education at the keyboard.” [ 2 ]

Frances Clark's Questions and Answers: Practical Advice for Piano Teachers, 1992. [ 1 ]


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Clark, Frances.  Questions and Answers: Practical Advice for Piano Teachers.  Northfield: The Instrumentalist Company, 1992.  Scan of Book Cover.  Print.  15 Feb. 2016.  No Known Copyright Restrictions.
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"Mission Statement."  Keyboard Pedagogy.  The Frances Clark Center for Keyboard Pedagogy, n.d.  Web.  17 Sept. 2015.
Additional References:
  • Kreader, Barbara.  "In Memorium Frances Clark 1905 – 1998."  Clavier Companion.  The Piano Magazine Clavier Companion, Winter 1998.  Web.  17 Sept. 2015.
  • Baker-Jordan, Martha, Dr.  Practical Piano Pedagogy: The Definitive Text for Piano Teachers and Pedagogy Students.  Warner Bros. Publications, 2003, 2004.  Google Books.  Web.  17 Sept. 2015.

Carola Grindea (1914 – 2009) — Moldovia Born Pianist, Teacher, Author

  • Educated at Bucharest Conservatory.
  • Scholarship studies under Tobias Matthay.
  • Professor at Guildhall School of Music.
  • Founded the International Society for the Study of Tension in Performance (ISSTP).
  • Developed breathing exercises for relaxation.
  • In her book Great Pianists and Pedagogues, she interviews more than 40 pianists and pedagogues of the 20th century.

Carola Grindea's 'Great Pianists and Pedagogues, 2007. [ 1 ]


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Grindea, Carola.  Great Pianists and Pedagogues in Conversation with Carola Grindea.  Kahn & Averill: London, 2007.  Book Cover.  Amazon.  Amazon.Com, 1996 – 2016.  Web.  14 Feb. 2016.  No Known Copyright Restrictions.
Additional References:
  • Menuhin, Yalta.  "Carola Grindea Speaks with Yaltah Menuhin About Her Musical Upbringing and Career."  Yalta Menuhin.  Piano Journal, no 3, 1982.  Web.  17 Sept. 2015.
  • "Piano Technique Reviews: Carola Grindea and Grindea Technique."  Piano Technique.  Maple Grove Music Productions, n.d.  Web.  17 Sept. 2015.
  • Siepmann, Jeremy.  "Carola Grindea: World-Famous Pioano Teacher Concerned with the Stress of Performance."  The Guardian.  Guardian News and Media Limited, 1 Sept. 2009.  Web.  17 Sept. 2015.
  • "Professor Carola Grindea."  The Telegraph.  Telegraph Media Group Limited, 23 July 2009.  Web.  17 Sept. 2015.
  • "History of ISSTIP."  ISSTIP.  International Society for the Study of Tension in Performance, 2005 – 2015.  Web.  17 Sept. 2015.

Guy Duckworth (1923 – 2015) — American Pianist, Pedagogue

  • Played violin at age 4 ½, began the piano at 7.
  • Piano soloist for MGM Studios and Columbia Artists, as well as various radio stations in Los Angeles.
  • Received his BA from UCLA in 1951, his Masters in Music from Columbia University in 1953, and his Doctorate in Philosophy from Columbia University in 1969.
  • Pioneer of group piano pedagogy. “A student in a group of peers is more likely to express his views and differ with the teacher than a student alone with a teacher. His individuality is more obvious with his peers. He’s more natural. In private teaching a student is less venturesome. He picks up patterns from adults. […] There are more chances for individuality when there are no hard fast rights and wrongs.” – Guy Duckworth [ 2 ]
  • Created the doctoral program Piano Performance Literature and Pedagogy: Process of Group Environments at The University of Colorado, Boulder. “I believe the healthiest environment for learning is when enlightened teachers encourage students to teach students.” – Guy Duckworth [ 3 ]
  • Considered among one of four pedagogues (among Richard Chronister, Frances Clark, and Robert Pace) who changed piano pedagogy in the 20th century.

Guy Duckworth's Keyboard Discoverer Book II, 1963. [ 1 ]


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Duckworth, Guy.  Keyboard Discoverer Book II.  Evanston: The M-F Co., 1963.  Scan of Book Cover.  Print.  15 Feb. 2016.  No Known Copyright Restrictions.
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Otto, Jean.  "Piano Should Be Fun, Teacher Says."  The Milwaukee Journal.  10 July 1970: 4.  Google News.  Web.  17 Sept. 2015.
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Baker-Jordan, Martha, Dr.  Practical Piano Pedagogy: The Definitive Text for Piano Teachers and Pedagogy Students.  Warner Bros. Publications, 2003, 2004.  Google Books.  Web.  17 Sept. 2015.
Additional References:
  • "Guy Duckworth: Educator, Musician, Pianist."  Prabook.  Prabook, n.d.  Web.  17 Sept. 2015.
  • "Celebrating the Legacies of Guy Duckwroth and Louis Goss."  Keyboard Pedagogy.  The Frances Clark Center for Keyboard Pedagogy, n.d.  Web.  17 Sept. 2015.

Robert Pace (b. 1924) — Pianist, Composer, Pedagogue

  • Began playing the piano at age 5. At age 9, along with his sister (who played the violin), performed on radio concerts. He also played the trombone.
  • As a scholarship student at Juilliard School of Music, under the tutelage of Joseph and Rosina Lhévinne, received a BS.
  • In 1948, started his Masters and received his Doctorate from Teacher’s College, Columbia University in 1951. (Received an honorary doctorate from Westminister Choir College in 2003.)
  • Taught at Julliard and then Teachers College, becoming head of piano in 1952 and Chairman of the music department in 1969.
  • National piano chair for the Music Educators National Conference (1953 – 1956).
  • Editor of Music Journal (1959 – 1962).
  • Appointed by JFK in 1962 to a small panel to study the standing of music and music education is in the United States.
  • Served as Director of the National Piano Foundation from 1963 – 1977; at which time he became executive director of the International Piano Teaching Foundation.
  • Developed “peer-teaching,” “Comprehensive Musicianship,” as well as the “Pace Method” curriculum. “The philosophy of the Pace Approach is to develop, from the beginning, a real musical independence. [Students] in the Pace Approach learn to teach themselves, since in reality they must be their own teachers 6/7ths of the time during their practice between lessons. The ability to sight-read, [improvise] and create one’s own music [is essential]. [To play] in any key with a good and responsive technique [will] enable the learner to get the right note at the right time with the right intensity.” – Robert Pace [ 2 ]
  • His wife, Helen Crabtree, a vocalist, pianist and graduate from Juilliard, collaborated with him on many publications and recordings.

Robert Pace's The New Kinder Keyboard, 1988. [ 1 ]


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Pace, Robert.  The New Kinder Keyboard.  Chatham: Lee Roberts Music Publishing, Inc. 1988.  Scan of Book Cover.  Print.  15 Feb. 2016.  No Known Copyright Restrictions.
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Zeigler, John, Dr.  "Artist/Educator Archive Interview – Dr. Robert Pace."  Piano Education.  John M. Zeigler, Aug. 2004.  Web.  17 Sept. 2015.
Additional References:
  • Pace, Cynthia, Dr.  "An Enduring Legacy."  Lee Roberts Music.  Lee Roberts Music Piublications, Inc., 2013.  Web.  17 Sept. 2015.

Louise Goss (1926 – 2014) — American Piano Pedagogue

  • Studied piano and clarinet.
  • Educated under Frances Clark (who established the first piano pedagogue program in the United States) as the first class at Kalamazoo College, receiving a B.A with three majors—music, philosophy, and English.
  • Along with Frances Clark, Goss was director of the piano and piano pedagogy program at Westminster Choir College in New Jersey.
  • In 1960, collaborated with Frances Clark to create The New School for Music Study in Princeton.
  • Writer and editor of the Frances Clark Library for Piano Students and The Music Tree piano method series.
  • First woman on the faculty of music literature at the University of Michigan.
 

Louise Goss: Group Lesson (Parents' Class) – Warm-Ups. [ 1 ]

 


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PianoPedagogy.org.  "Louise Goss, Warm-Ups, Group Lesson (Parents’ Class) 1985."  Online Video Clip.  YouTube.  YouTube, 18 Aug. 2015.  Web.  5 Nov. 2015.  Standard YouTube License.
Additional References:
  • "Louis Goss (1926-2014)."  NSMS Piano.  The New School for Music Study, n.d.  Web.  17 Sept. 2015.
  • "Louis Goss, 1926-2014."  Keyboard Pedagogy. The Frances Clark Center for Keyboard Pedagogy, n.d.  Web.  17 Sept. 2015.

Karl-Heinz Köhler (b. 1928) — German Musicologist, Librarian

  • Studied violin.
  • Studied Musicology at Weimar Musikhochschule and Jena University, where he received his doctorate in 1956 writing his dissertation on J.S. Bach.
  • Among the many positions he held, Köhler was the director of the music department at Deutsche Staatsbibliothek (1955 – 1979), lecturer at Humboldt University (1965), and president of the East German section of AML (1971) for which he eventually became vice-president (1977 – 1980).
  • Written over 188 works comprising 520 publications translated into 5 languages.
  • “Köhler's research and editorial work is concerned with performance, musicology and librarianship. [He] has concentrated on Mozart, J.S. Bach and early works by Mendelssohn and is co-editor of Beethoven's writings, [contributing] to the development of music librarianship and source material information systems.” [ 1 ]


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Seeger, Horst, and Jutta Pumpe.  "Köhler, Karl-Heinz."  Oxford Music Online.  Oxford University Press, 2007 – 2015.  Web.  18 Sept. 2015.
Additional References:
  • "Köhler, Karl-Heinz 1928 -."  WorldCat.  Online Computer Library Center, Inc., 2010.  Web.  18 Sept. 2015.

Richard Chronister (1930 – 1999) — Pedagogue

“The main role of the teacher is to make the student want to play the pieces. When a teacher’s mouth is open, learning is probably not going on. The teacher’s words prepare students and help them think, but it is only what the students tell themselves when we are not around that really counts.” – Richard Chronister [ 2 ]

  • Studied music at University of Tulsa, receiving his Bachelors in 1952 and his Masters in 1955.
  • Taught at Westminster Choir College in 1956 and University of Tulsa in 1959, where he founded and directed the piano pedagogy program (the first to be recognized by the National Association of Schools of Music).
  • In 1961, appointed educational director in charge of teacher training at the New School for Music Study.
  • In 1968, co-founder and educational director for the National Keyboard Arts Associates, while also director of piano pedagogy for Westminster Choir College.
  • In 1980, co-founder and executive director for the National Conference on Piano Pedagogy.
  • Founding Board member for the Frances Clark Center for Keyboard Pedagogy.
  • Founder, editor and publisher of Keyboard Companion.
  • Published posthumously: A Piano Teacher’s Legacy (Selected Writings by Richard Chronister), containing previously unpublished lecture notes from 1970 – 1999, articles and addresses.

A Piano Teacher’s Legacy: Selected Writings by Richard Chronister, 2005 [ 1 ]


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Chronister, Richard, and Edward Darling, ed.  A Piano Teacher’s Legacy: Selected Writings by Richard Chronister.  Kingston: The Frances Clark Center for Keyboard Pedagogy, 2005.  Scan of Book Cover.  Print.  15 Feb. 2016.  No Known Copyright Restrictions.
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Vivace.  "Famous Quote of Richard Chronister."  Piano Adventures.  PianoAdventures.Com, 3 Feb. 2012.  Web.  18 Sept. 2015.
Additional References:
  • "Richard Chronister."  Clavier Companion.  The Piano Magazine Clavier Companion, 1999.  Web.  18 Sept. 2015.
  • "Richard Chronister."  Piano Pedagogy.  The New School for Music Study, n.d.  Web.  18 Sept. 2015.
  • Chronister, Richard, and Edward Darling, ed.  A Piano Teacher’s Legacy – Selected Writings by Richard Chronister.  Kingston:  The Frances Clark Center for Keyboard Pedagogy, 2005.  GoodReads.  Web.  18 Sept. 2015.
  • "A Piano Teacher’s Legacy – Selected Writings by Richard Chronister."  The Free Library By Farlex.  Farlex, Inc. n.d.  Web.  18 Sept. 2015.

Karl Heller (b. 1935) — German Musicologist

  • Studied at Musikhochschule in Weimer, University of Jena, and University of Leipzig. Received his doctorate in 1965 from Rostock University.
  • Professor at Rostock of 17th and 18th century instrumental music with an emphasis on J.S Bach and Antonio Vivaldi.
  • Wrote several books on Vivaldi (including his dissertation), the latest being Antonio Vivaldi: The Red Priest Of Venice (1991), and several on J.S. Bach.


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Additional References:
  • Kaden, Christian.  "Heller, Karl (Wilhelm)."  Oxford Music Online.  Oxford University Press, 2007 – 2015.  Web.  18 Sept. 2015.
Page 7 of 7 pages

[ CLOSE ]
 

Additional References:
  • Mastehead Image: O’Donnell, Dylan.  "Piano Strings."  Photograph.  Deography.  Dylan O’Donnell, 1 Nov. 2010.  Web.  18 June 2015.  Public Domain.
  • Mandalatrece, Jim Doney.  "History of an Ascended Master, His Connection with Essenes, and The Secrecy of The Kanon."  ThaKanon.  Jim Doney Mandalatrece, n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • Blaise, Gary.  "The Early String Keyboards."  Gary Blaise.  Gary Blaise Early Keyboard Instruments, n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "History of Classical Music."  Naxos.  Naxos Digital Services Ltd., n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "History of the Piano."  Piano Technicians Guild.  Piano Technicians Guild, Inc. n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "Development of the Piano."  Bluebook of Piano.  Bluebook of Pianos, 1933 – 2015.  18 June 2015.
  • Estrella, Steven G.  "Stylistic Timeline of Music History."  Steven Estrella.  Steven G. Estrella, 2013.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "The History of Graphical Music Notation."  Block Museum.  Mary and Leigh Block Museum of Art, n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "The Piano Time Line: A Chronological History."  Concert Pitch Piano.  Concert Pitch Piano Services, 2000 – 2015.  Web.  18 June. 2015.
  • "History of the Piano."  Piano Tuners.  The UK Piano Pages, 1996 – 2015.  Web.  18 June. 2015.
  • Weinstock, Ron.  "A Personal List of Ten Great Blues Pianists."  In a Blue Mood.  In a Blue Mood, 25 Sept. 2009.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "Romantic Music."  Essential Humanities.  Essential Humanities, 2008 – 2013.  Web.  19 June 2015.
  • "List of Romantic-Era Composers."  Wikipedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 15 Sept. 2015.  Web.  18 Sept. 2015.
  • Duchen, Jessica.  "Top 20: The World’s Greatest Pianists."  Sinfini Music.  Sinfini Music, 23 April 2014.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • Solomon, Jon.  "The Ten Best Jazz Pianists of All Time."  Westword.  Denver Westword, LLC., 27 Aug. 2013.  18 June 2015.
  • Sturm, Connie Arrau, Debra Brubaker Burs, and Anita Jackson, eds.  "Annotated Bibliography of Sources on the History of Piano Technique and Piano Pedagogy."  Piano Technique.  Piano Technique.Net, n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • Groves Music Online for Music Research.  Oxford Music Online.  Oxford University Press, 2007 – 2015.  Web.  June – December 2015.
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