MUSIC THROUGH THE AGES

Development Of The Piano: A Timeline
Tracing the roots of the piano to the very beginning of consciousness,
when man first became aware of sound.
PEDAGOGY & THEORY
Page 4 of 7 pages

Portrait of Clara Schumann by Franz Hanfstaengl, 1857. [ 1 ]

Clara Schumann (1819 – 1896) — German Pianist, Composer, Teacher (Daughter of Friedrich Wieck, wife of Robert Schumann) – Romantic Period


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Hanfstaengl, Franz and uploaded by ‪Meister Raro~commonswiki.  Clara Schumann.  1857.  Photograph.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 11 Jan. 2006.  Web.  17 Sept. 2015.  Public Domain. 

Charles-Louis Hanon (1819 – 1900) — French Composer, Piano Pedagogue – Romantic Period

  • Trained and worked as an organist.
  • Among his writings, his most famous is The Virtuoso Pianist in 60 Exercises (Le Piano Virtuose en 60 Exercices) (1873/1874). Regarded highly by his contemporaries such as Felix le Coupey and Georges Mathias. Sergei Rachmaninoff is said to have used Hanon’s exercises on a daily basis.

Hanon  – The Virtuoso Pianist
in Sixty Exercises
. [ 1 ]


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Schirmer’s Library of Musical Classics.  "Hanon’s 'The Virtuoso Pianist in Sixty Exercises'."  Sheet Music.  di-arezzo.  DI-AREZZO, n.d. Web.  12 Oct. 2015.  No Known Copyright Restrictions. 
Additional References:
  • Clarfield, Ingrid Jacobson, ed.  "Burgmüller, Czerny & Hanon – 32 Piano Studies Selected for Technique and Musicality, Vol 1."  New York: Alfred Music Publishing, 2001.  Google Books.  Web. 17 Sept. 2014.

Heinrich Ehrlich (1822 – 1899) — Austrian Pianist, Teacher, Writer, Critic

  • Pupil of Adolf Henselt, Karl Maria von Bocklet, Sigismund Thalberg, and Simon Sechter.
  • Ehrlich held many professions: court pianist to King George V, journalist and piano teacher in Berlin (teaching at the Stern Conservatory), and music critic for Neue Berliner Musikzeitung, Sie Gegenwart, Die Tribüne, and Berliner Tageblatt.
  • Some of his pupils: Franz Mannstädt, Friedrich Spiro, and Wilibald Nagel.
  • Among his many pedagogical writings, he is most noted for his edition of Carl Tausig’s Daily Studies (Tägliche Studien für Pianoforte) (1873) which was published after Tausig’s death and How to Practise on the Piano: Reflections and Suggestions with Precise Directions for the Proper Use of the Tausig-Ehrlich “Daily Studies.” (Wie übt man am Klavier? Betrachtungen und Rathschläge nebst genauer Anweisung für den richtigen Gebrauch der Tausig-Ehrlich’schen ‘Tägliche Studien’) (1879)


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Additional References:
  • Colles, H.C., and R.  "Ehrlich, (Karl) Heinrich (Alfred)."  Oxford Music Online.  Oxford University Press, 2007 – 2015.  Web.  17 Sept. 2015.

Book Cover of Dr. Adolph Kullak's Die Asthetik des Klavierspiels, 1905. [ 1 ]

Adolph Kullak (1823 – 1862) — Polish Music Critic (Brother of Theodor Kullak)

  • Co-Editor of Berliner Musik-Zeitung.
  • Taught at his brother’s school Neue Akademie der Tonkunst.
  • Among his writings is The Aesthetics of Pianoforte Playing (Die Ästhetik des Klavierspiels ) (1860/1861), which covers piano technique and musical expression and “… was arguably the most widely read and influential book on piano teaching and playing of the nineteenth century…” [ 2 ]
  • Another work The Art of the Touch: A Work for the Use of Advanced Players and a Guide for Teaching Pianoforte (1855) is highly revered.


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Kullak, Adolf, and Walter Niemann, and uploaded by WhitneyYoung.   Die Asthetik des Klavierspiels.  Book Cover.  Leipzig: C.F. Kahnt, 1905.   Open Library.Org.  Internet Archive, 9 April 2012.  Web.  12 Oct. 2015.  No Known Copyright Restrictions.
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Sutcliffe, W. Dean, ed.  Haydn Studies.  New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998 (digital, 2006).  Google Books.  Web. 17 Sept. 2014.
Additional References:
  • Millar, Andrew Peter.  "Adolph Kullak’s “Die Asthetik des Klavierspiels” and the Emergence of Modern Piano Technique by the Late Nineteenth Century [microform]."  National Library of Australia.  National Library of Australia, 2004.  Web.  17, Sept. 2015.
  • Palmieri, Robert, ed.  The Piano: An Encyclopedia.  2nd Edition.  New York: Routledge, June 1, 2004.  Google Books.  Web. 14 Sept. 2015.

Eduard Hanslick (1825 – 1904) — Austrian Music Critic, Aesthetician, Historian

  • Taught ‘history and aesthetics of music’ at the University of Vienna.
  • Among his many writings, The Beautiful in Music (Vom Musikalisch-Schönen) (1854), about the aesthetics in music, was his most famous works.
  • Critical of Wagner and the New German School.

Portrait of Eduard Hanslick by Rudolf Krziwanek. [ 1 ]


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H., Martin.  "Portrait of Eduard Hanslick by Rudolf Krziwanek."  Lithograph.  Original in Austrian National Library, Picture Archive Austria, Wien.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 27 Feb. 2011.  Web.  12 Oct. 2015.  Public Domain. 

Ludwig Deppe (1828 – 1890) — German Pianist, Teacher, Conductor, Composer

  • A great theorist of technique.
  • The book Artistic Piano-Playing as Taught by Ludwig Deppe Together with Practical Advice on Questions of Technique (1903) written by Elisabeth Caland, describes the technique that was taught to his students.

Portrait of Ludwig Deppe,
c. 1880s. [ 1 ]


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Андрей Романенко.  "Portrait of Ludwig Deppe, c. 1880s."  Scan.  Located in the New York Public Library, Digital Collection, New York.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 19 Aug. 2009.  Web.  12 Oct. 2015.  Public Domain. 

Portrait of Anton Rubinstein
by IIya Repin, 1887. [ 1 ]

Anton Rubinstein (1829 – 1894) — Russian Composer, Pianist, Conductor, Teacher – Romantic Period (Brother to Nikolai Rubinstein)

  • His piano playing rivaled Liszt.
  • Prolific composer.
  • Founded St. Petersburg Conservatory in 1862, the first music school in Russia. One of his most famous students was Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky.


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Repin, IIya, and uploaded by Fransvannes.  Portrait of Anton Rubinstein.  1887.  The State Russian Museum, St. Petersburg.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 25 June 2006.  Web.  12 Oct. 2015.  Public Domain. 
Additional References:
  • Spunberg, Jorge.  "Anton Rubinstein (biography)."  The Berdichev Revival.  The Berdichev Revival, 1997 – 2015.  Web. 17 Sept. 2015.
  • "Anton Rubinstein."  Naxos.  Naxos Digital Services Ltd., n.d. Web. 17 Sept. 2015.

Portrait of Hans von Bülow by Emilie Bieber, c.1880. [ 1 ]

Hans von Bülow (1830 – 1894) — German Conductor, Virtuoso Pianist, Composer, Editor, Teacher – Romantic Period

  • Student of Friedrich Wieck and Franz Liszt.
  • Championed “new German music.”
  • Transcribed and conducted Wagner’s Tristan and conducted Meistersinger.
  • Conductor for Meiningen Orchestra.
  • Renowned master classes.
  • Instrumental in turning the Berlin Philharmonic into a great orchestra.


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Bieber, Emilie.  Portrait of Hans von Bülow.  c. 1880.  Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington D.C., part of George Grantham Bain Collection, Digital ID cph 3c03945LOC.Gov.  Web.  12 Oct. 2015.  No Known Copyright Restrictions. 
Additional References:
  • "Terrific Biography of Hans von Bülow."  The Wagner Blog.  The Wagner Blog, n.d.  Web.  17 Sept. 2015.
  • Taylor, Priscilla S.  "Books: 'Hans Von Bulow: A Life and Times.'"  The Washington Times.  The Washington Times, 12 Feb. 2010.  Web.  17 Sept. 2015.

Theodor Leschetizky (1830 – 1915) — Polish Pianist, Teacher, Composer –Romantic Period

  • Student of Czerny.
  • Leschetizky stated he doesn’t have a specific method of teaching; quoted as saying “I teach exactly as Czerny taught me; I have added nothing, changed nothing.”
  • Director of music at the court of the Grand Duchess Helen.
  • Head of the piano department at St. Petersburg Conservatory.
  • Over 1200 pianists studied under him.
  • Considered one of the greatest piano teachers of the modern era.
  • Some of his pupils: Artur Schnabel, Ossip Gabrilovich, and Ignacy Jan Paderewski.

Portrait of Theodor Leschetizky,
c. 1860s. [ 1 ]


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Ctac.  "Theodor Leschetizky, c. 1860s."  Photograph.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 17 Aug. 2015.  Web.  12 Oct. 2015.  Public Domain. 
Additional References:
  • Methuen-Campbell, James.  "Leschetozky, Theodor [Leszetucki, Teodor]."  Oxford Music Online.  Oxford University Press, 2007 – 2015.  Web.  17 Sept. 2015.

Portrait of Joseph Joachim by George Frederick Watts, 1868. [ 1 ]

Joseph Joachim (1831 – 1907) — Austro-Hungarian Composer, Violinist, Conductor, Teacher – Romantic Period


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Watts, George Frederick, and uploaded by WikiOriginal-9.  A Lamplight Study: Herr Joachim.  1868.  Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 19 Jan. 2015.  Web.  12 Oct. 2015.  Public Domain. 
Page 4 of 7 pages

[ CLOSE ]
 

Additional References:
  • Mastehead Image: O’Donnell, Dylan.  "Piano Strings."  Photograph.  Deography.  Dylan O’Donnell, 1 Nov. 2010.  Web.  18 June 2015.  Public Domain.
  • Mandalatrece, Jim Doney.  "History of an Ascended Master, His Connection with Essenes, and The Secrecy of The Kanon."  ThaKanon.  Jim Doney Mandalatrece, n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • Blaise, Gary.  "The Early String Keyboards."  Gary Blaise.  Gary Blaise Early Keyboard Instruments, n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "History of Classical Music."  Naxos.  Naxos Digital Services Ltd., n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "History of the Piano."  Piano Technicians Guild.  Piano Technicians Guild, Inc. n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "Development of the Piano."  Bluebook of Piano.  Bluebook of Pianos, 1933 – 2015.  18 June 2015.
  • Estrella, Steven G.  "Stylistic Timeline of Music History."  Steven Estrella.  Steven G. Estrella, 2013.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "The History of Graphical Music Notation."  Block Museum.  Mary and Leigh Block Museum of Art, n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "The Piano Time Line: A Chronological History."  Concert Pitch Piano.  Concert Pitch Piano Services, 2000 – 2015.  Web.  18 June. 2015.
  • "History of the Piano."  Piano Tuners.  The UK Piano Pages, 1996 – 2015.  Web.  18 June. 2015.
  • Weinstock, Ron.  "A Personal List of Ten Great Blues Pianists."  In a Blue Mood.  In a Blue Mood, 25 Sept. 2009.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "Romantic Music."  Essential Humanities.  Essential Humanities, 2008 – 2013.  Web.  19 June 2015.
  • "List of Romantic-Era Composers."  Wikipedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 15 Sept. 2015.  Web.  18 Sept. 2015.
  • Duchen, Jessica.  "Top 20: The World’s Greatest Pianists."  Sinfini Music.  Sinfini Music, 23 April 2014.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • Solomon, Jon.  "The Ten Best Jazz Pianists of All Time."  Westword.  Denver Westword, LLC., 27 Aug. 2013.  18 June 2015.
  • Sturm, Connie Arrau, Debra Brubaker Burs, and Anita Jackson, eds.  "Annotated Bibliography of Sources on the History of Piano Technique and Piano Pedagogy."  Piano Technique.  Piano Technique.Net, n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • Groves Music Online for Music Research.  Oxford Music Online.  Oxford University Press, 2007 – 2015.  Web.  June – December 2015.
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