MUSIC THROUGH THE AGES

Development Of The Piano: A Timeline
Tracing the roots of the piano to the very beginning of consciousness,
when man first became aware of sound.
PEDAGOGY & THEORY
Page 1 of 7 pages

The monochord, a primitive, single-stringed scientific instrument, attributed to Pythagoras, used as a way of teaching harmonics, measuring musical intervals, tuning scales and encouraging experimentation. It is thought that Pythagoras used the monochord to delineate the three Western Scales (diatonic, chromatic, and enharmonic), illustrating how numerical ratios could be visualized with sound. The single string was typically plucked, though later developments would offer other variations, including the use of a bow. The introduction of a sound box to enhance the lower-frequency response of the single string led to the invention of the soundboard.

 

Dan Bao Monochord Improvisation,
Three Rivers One Source,
Performed by Phong Nguyen. [ 2 ]

 

Sonification of World Order with a Monochord by Robert Fludd, 1624. [ 1 ]


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Rötel, Kaspar (Drucker).  Divine Monochord.  1617 – 1621.  Fludd, Robert.  Utriusque Cosmi Maioris Scilicet et Minoris Metaphysica, Physica atque Technica Historia Oppeinheim: Theodore de Bry.  (Collection Centre Candien d’Architecture, Montreal)  Gutenberg-E.Org.  Web.  13 Oct. 2015.  Public Domain. 
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Brink, Wayne.  “Dan Bao Improvisation, Three Rivers One Source.”  Online Video Clip.  YouTube.  YouTube, 29 Nov. 2013.  Web.  14 Oct. 2015.  Standard YouTube License.

Music notation first developed, a curve representing the rise and fall of pitch.

Musical Staff. [ 1 ]

A staff appeared with the traditional five lines.


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Cralize.  "Staff."  Digital Art.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 25 Sept. 2005.  Web.  9 Oct. 2015.  GFDL, and CC BY-SA 3.0

In England, a system of notation developed, much like it is today, with open and closed notes on the staff; and the first inclusion of ‘colouration,’ by composers.

François Couperin (1668–1733) — French Composer, Harpsichordist, Organist, Teacher (Son of Charles Couperin) – Baroque Period

  • His treatise The Art of Playing the Harpsichord (L 'Art de Toucher le Clavecin) (1716) covers fingering, touch, ornamentation and performance on the harpsichord.

François Couperin,
Early 18th Century. [ 1 ]


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Unknown, and uploaded by Charvex.  François Couperin.  Early 18th C.  Palace of Versailles, Versailles.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 28 Dec. 2007.  Web.  18 Aug. 2015.  Public Domain. 
Additional References:
  • Higginbottom, Edward.  "François Couperin."  Oxford Music Online.  Oxford University Press, 2007 – 2015.  Web.  14 Sept. 2015.

Louis-Joseph Marchand (1692 – 1774) — French Theorist, Composer, Priest – Baroque Period

  • His book Singing from the Book (Traité du Contrepoint Simple, ou Chant sur le Livre) (1739) considered to be the first French counterpoint handbook.


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Additional References:
  • Aleksandrowicz, Milosz.  "The Rules of the Improvised Vocal Religious Polyphony.  Louis-Joseph Marchand’s Traité Du Counterpoint Simple (1739)."  KUL.  The John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, n.d.  Web.  14 Sept. 2015.
  • Montagnier, Jean-Paul.  "Marchand, Louis-Joseph."  Oxford Music Online.  Oxford University Press, 2007 – 2015.  Web.  14 Sept. 2015.

Term Pianoforte ( “soft and loud” ) coined by poet/journalist Scipione Maffei; he named Cristofori’s instrument a “gravicembalo col piano, e forte.”

Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach by Franz Conrad Löhr. [ 1 ]

C. P. E. Bach (1714 – 1788) — German Composer, Harpsichordist, Organist (Son of JS Bach) – Late Baroque / Early Classical Period

  • His famous treatise Essay on the True Art of Playing the Keyboard Instruments (Versuch über die wahre Art das Clavier zu spielen) (1753) covers technical advice on fingering (helped to standardized the use of the thumb), position & figured bass, improvisation and ornamentation and his philosophy of performance, believing that music should “touch the heart” and “awaken the passions.” “…it was the most important work of practical musical instruction of the second half of the 18th century.” [ 2 ]
  • Mozart once said of him: “Bach is the father. We are the children!”


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Löhr , Franz Conrad, and uploaded by Phrood~commonswiki.  Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach.  Gemäldegalerie der Staatlichen Museen zu Berlin, Berlin.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 10 June 2005.  Web.  14 Sept. 2015.  Public Domain.
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Leisinger, Ulrich.  "Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach."  Oxford Music Online.  Oxford University Press, 2007 – 2015.  Web.  14 Sept. 2015.
Additional References:
  • Dammann, Guy.  "CPE Bach: Like father, like son."  The Guardian.  Guardian News and Media Limited, 24 Feb. 2011.  Web.  14 Sept. 2015.
  • "Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach (1714 – 1788)."  Early-Music.  Early~Music, n.d.  Web.  14 Sept. 2015.
  • Leisinger, Ulrich.  "Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach."  Oxford Music Online.  Oxford University Press, 2007 – 2015.  Web.  14 Sept. 2015.

Friedrich Wilhelm Marpurg (1718–1795) — German Critic, Journalist, Theorist, Composer – Classical Period

  • Initially interested in discussing how music had an effect on audiences but later shifted and became more concerned about the works themselves & the composer’s relation to the work.
  • Among his many works are topics ranging from teaching keyboard performance, thoroughbass, and composition and fugue.
  • Developed Rameau’s theories.
  • His works used in the study of the history of 18th century music. He had three periodicals in which he wrote and edited: Der critische Musicus an der Spree (1749–50), Historisch-kritische Beyträge zur Aufnahme der Musik (1754–62, 1778), and Kritische Briefe über die Tonkunst (1760–64).

Portrait of Friedrich Wilhelm Marpurg – Drawing by Friedrich Kauke, Engraved by Berol. [ 1 ]


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Berol engraving, original painting by Friedrich Kauke, and uploaded by FastilyClone.  Engraving of Friedrich Wilhelm Marpurg.  1758.  Gallica – The Digital Library of the National Library of France, Paris.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 20 April 2005.  Web.  18 Aug. 2015.  Public Domain. 
Additional References:
  • Serwer, Howard.  "Marpurg, Friedrich Wilhelm."  Oxford Music Online.  Oxford University Press, 2007 – 2015.  Web.  14 Sept. 2015.
  • Johnson, Keith.  "Friedrich Wilhelm Marpurg Biography."  AllMusic.  All Media Network, LLC., n.d.  Web.  14 Sept 2014.
  • Pulver, Jeffrey.  "Friedrich Wilhelm Marpurg."  The Musical Times.  Vol. 53, No. 832.  1 June 1912.  JSTOR.  Web.  14 Sept. 2015.

La Notte Critica Score by Antonio Boroni.[ 1 ]

Antonio Boroni (1738–1792) — Italian Composer, Choirmaster – Late Baroque / Early Classical Period

  • Taught his relative Muzio Clementi.
  • Maestro din Cappella at Saint Peter’s Basilica.


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Boroni, Antonio, and uploaded by jakej.  La Notte Critica.  International Music Score Library Project (IMSLP).  Internet Archive.  Web.  13 Oct. 2015.   No Known Copyright Restrictions.
Page 1 of 7 pages

[ CLOSE ]
 

Additional References:
  • Mastehead Image: O’Donnell, Dylan.  "Piano Strings."  Photograph.  Deography.  Dylan O’Donnell, 1 Nov. 2010.  Web.  18 June 2015.  Public Domain.
  • Mandalatrece, Jim Doney.  "History of an Ascended Master, His Connection with Essenes, and The Secrecy of The Kanon."  ThaKanon.  Jim Doney Mandalatrece, n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • Blaise, Gary.  "The Early String Keyboards."  Gary Blaise.  Gary Blaise Early Keyboard Instruments, n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "History of Classical Music."  Naxos.  Naxos Digital Services Ltd., n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "History of the Piano."  Piano Technicians Guild.  Piano Technicians Guild, Inc. n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "Development of the Piano."  Bluebook of Piano.  Bluebook of Pianos, 1933 – 2015.  18 June 2015.
  • Estrella, Steven G.  "Stylistic Timeline of Music History."  Steven Estrella.  Steven G. Estrella, 2013.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "The History of Graphical Music Notation."  Block Museum.  Mary and Leigh Block Museum of Art, n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "The Piano Time Line: A Chronological History."  Concert Pitch Piano.  Concert Pitch Piano Services, 2000 – 2015.  Web.  18 June. 2015.
  • "History of the Piano."  Piano Tuners.  The UK Piano Pages, 1996 – 2015.  Web.  18 June. 2015.
  • Weinstock, Ron.  "A Personal List of Ten Great Blues Pianists."  In a Blue Mood.  In a Blue Mood, 25 Sept. 2009.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "Romantic Music."  Essential Humanities.  Essential Humanities, 2008 – 2013.  Web.  19 June 2015.
  • "List of Romantic-Era Composers."  Wikipedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 15 Sept. 2015.  Web.  18 Sept. 2015.
  • Duchen, Jessica.  "Top 20: The World’s Greatest Pianists."  Sinfini Music.  Sinfini Music, 23 April 2014.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • Solomon, Jon.  "The Ten Best Jazz Pianists of All Time."  Westword.  Denver Westword, LLC., 27 Aug. 2013.  18 June 2015.
  • Sturm, Connie Arrau, Debra Brubaker Burs, and Anita Jackson, eds.  "Annotated Bibliography of Sources on the History of Piano Technique and Piano Pedagogy."  Piano Technique.  Piano Technique.Net, n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • Groves Music Online for Music Research.  Oxford Music Online.  Oxford University Press, 2007 – 2015.  Web.  June – December 2015.
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