1781, German Action
“German action,” or Prellmechanik, ascribed to Johann Stein, first conceived as early as 1769 and refined during the 1770s. By 1781, hammers mounted directly on the keys.
1785, Érard Dispensation
The Luthiers of Paris—losing business due to Érard’s success—tried to shut him down as a nonmember of the guild. As a result, Érard was awarded a special dispensation from Louis XVI to continue making instruments.
1792, Érard London
Due to the French Revolution, Érard moved to London in 1792 and opened a shop (though records showing he began doing business as early as 1786); along with pianos, he began manufacturing harps in which he made many improvements and was awarded many patents.
- "Sébastian Érard (1752)." Butchoff. Butchoff Antiques, 2012. Web. 16 Sept. 2015.
Ritmüller piano company established by Andreas Georg Ritmüller (b. Unknown – c. 1800) and his son, Gotlieb Wilhelm Ritmüller (1770 – 1829) in Gottingen, Germany, originally produced guitars and harps before eventually devoting much of their production on pianos in 1795.
Érard returned to Paris.
Brodmann piano company established by Prussian born Joseph Brodmann (c. 1771 – 1848) began producing pianos, borrowing from the influence of Ferdinand Hofmann and Anton Walter.
1808, Érard Patent
Érard granted a patent for the agraffe.
1809, Érard Patent
Érard granted a patent for pinblock bushings.
Érard granted a patent for the double-escapement “repetition” action.