C. 5th Century BCE, Monochord
The monochord, a primitive, single-stringed scientific instrument, attributed to Pythagoras, used as a way of teaching harmonics, measuring musical intervals, tuning scales and encouraging experimentation. It is thought that Pythagoras used the monochord to delineate the three Western Scales (diatonic, chromatic, and enharmonic), illustrating how numerical ratios could be visualized with sound. The single string was typically plucked, though later developments would offer other variations, including the use of a bow. The introduction of a sound box to enhance the lower-frequency response of the single string led to the invention of the soundboard.
800, Music Notation
Music notation first developed, a curve representing the rise and fall of pitch.
C.1400, Open Closed Notes
In England, a system of notation developed, much like it is today, with open and closed notes on the staff; and the first inclusion of ‘colouration,’ by composers.
François Couperin (1668–1733): French Composer, Harpsichordist, Organist, Teacher (Son of Charles Couperin) – Baroque Period
- His treatise The Art of Playing the Harpsichord (L 'Art de Toucher le Clavecin) (1716) covers fingering, touch, ornamentation and performance on the harpsichord.
- Higginbottom, Edward. "François Couperin." Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press, 2007 – 2015. Web. 14 Sept. 2015.
Louis-Joseph Marchand (1692 – 1774): French Theorist, Composer, Priest – Baroque Period
- His book Singing from the Book (Traité du Contrepoint Simple, ou Chant sur le Livre) (1739) considered to be the first French counterpoint handbook.
- Aleksandrowicz, Milosz. "The Rules of the Improvised Vocal Religious Polyphony. Louis-Joseph Marchand’s Traité Du Counterpoint Simple (1739)." KUL. The John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, n.d. Web. 14 Sept. 2015.
- Montagnier, Jean-Paul. "Marchand, Louis-Joseph." Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press, 2007 – 2015. Web. 14 Sept. 2015.
1711, Term: Pianoforte
Term Pianoforte ( “soft and loud” ) coined by poet/journalist Scipione Maffei; he named Cristofori’s instrument a “gravicembalo col piano, e forte.”
1714, CPE Bach
C. P. E. Bach (1714 – 1788): German Composer, Harpsichordist, Organist (Son of JS Bach) – Late Baroque / Early Classical Period
- His famous treatise Essay on the True Art of Playing the Keyboard Instruments (Versuch über die wahre Art das Clavier zu spielen) (1753) covers technical advice on fingering (helped to standardized the use of the thumb), position & figured bass, improvisation and ornamentation and his philosophy of performance, believing that music should “touch the heart” and “awaken the passions.” “…it was the most important work of practical musical instruction of the second half of the 18th century.” [ 2 ]
- Mozart once said of him: “Bach is the father. We are the children!”
- Dammann, Guy. "CPE Bach: Like father, like son." The Guardian. Guardian News and Media Limited, 24 Feb. 2011. Web. 14 Sept. 2015.
- "Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach (1714 – 1788)." Early-Music. Early~Music, n.d. Web. 14 Sept. 2015.
- Leisinger, Ulrich. "Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach." Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press, 2007 – 2015. Web. 14 Sept. 2015.
Friedrich Wilhelm Marpurg (1718–1795): German Critic, Journalist, Theorist, Composer – Classical Period
- Initially interested in discussing how music had an effect on audiences but later shifted and became more concerned about the works themselves & the composer’s relation to the work.
- Among his many works are topics ranging from teaching keyboard performance, thoroughbass, and composition and fugue.
- Developed Rameau’s theories.
- His works used in the study of the history of 18th century music. He had three periodicals in which he wrote and edited: Der critische Musicus an der Spree (1749–50), Historisch-kritische Beyträge zur Aufnahme der Musik (1754–62, 1778), and Kritische Briefe über die Tonkunst (1760–64).
- Serwer, Howard. "Marpurg, Friedrich Wilhelm." Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press, 2007 – 2015. Web. 14 Sept. 2015.
- Johnson, Keith. "Friedrich Wilhelm Marpurg Biography." AllMusic. All Media Network, LLC., n.d. Web. 14 Sept 2014.
- Pulver, Jeffrey. "Friedrich Wilhelm Marpurg." The Musical Times. Vol. 53, No. 832. 1 June 1912. JSTOR. Web. 14 Sept. 2015.
Antonio Boroni (1738–1792): Italian Composer, Choirmaster – Late Baroque / Early Classical Period
- Taught his relative Muzio Clementi.
- Maestro din Cappella at Saint Peter’s Basilica.