Tracing the roots of the piano to the very beginning of consciousness, when man first became aware of sound.
Gioachino Rossini (1792 – 1868): Italian Composer – Late Classical Period / Early Romantic Period
Ignaz Moscheles (1794 – 1870): Prague Born Pianist, Conductor, Composer, Teacher – Late Classical / Early Romantic Period
- Studied piano at a young age and was taught by B. D. Weber, director of the Prague Conservatory from 1804 - 1808.
- In 1808, moved to Vienna to be more connected to his musical idol Beethoven, as he felt: “Beethoven is great—whom should I call greater?” There, studied under Johann Georg Albrechtsberger (1736 – 1809) and Antonio Salieri (1750 – 1825).
- Circa 1814, Beethoven asked him to create the piano arrangement for his opera Fidelio.
- Became conductor and eventually co-director of the Royal Philharmonic Society.
- “Teaching was a central part of Moscheles’ career from his early years in Vienna until his death in Leipzig in 1870. The list of Moscheles’ students […] is long and impressive. For example, Moscheles calculated that in just one year, 1835, he had given in London ‘1457 lessons, of which 1328 were paid, and 129 gratis.’ If one […] extrapolates this to a teaching career of fifty years, the numbers are truly staggering.” [ 2 ]
- Taught at the London Royal Academy of Music and Leipzig Conservatory, as well as private lessons and other cities.
- Some of his pupils: Camille Pleyel, Sigismond Thalberg, and Felix Mendelssohn.
- In his work Method of Methods (Méthode des Méthodes) (1839/1840) co-written with Francis Joseph Fétis, Moscheles articulates on piano technique, music theory and “a wide sampling of views, opinions and approaches to the piano and its literature from most of the major teachers of the era.” [ 3 ]
- Chambers, Jr., Robert W. "Ignaz Moscheles (1794-1870)." Moscheles. Moscheles, 2004. Web. 16 Sept. 2016.
Adolf Bernhard Marx (1795 – 1866): German Music Theorist, Critic, Pedagogue
- Considered “one of the most influential theorist[s] of the 19th century, Marx named and codified sonata form.” [ 2 ]
- Editor of Berliner Allgemeine Musikalische Zeitung.
- Professor musicology at the University of Berlin and then later director of music.
- Among his many writings, his most famous was Die Lehre von der Musikalischen Komposition (1837/1838, 1845 and 1847).
- Co-founded what is now known as Stern Conservatory with Theodor Kullak and Julius Stern.
Ritmüller piano company established by Andreas Georg Ritmüller (b. Unknown – c. 1800) and his son, Gotlieb Wilhelm Ritmüller (1770 – 1829) in Gottingen, Germany, originally produced guitars and harps before eventually devoting much of their production on pianos in 1795.
Érard returned to Paris.
Franz Schubert (1797 – 1828): Austrian Composer – Late Classical / Early Romantic Period
Henri Bertini (1798 – 1876): London Born French Pianist, Composer – Classical Period
- Born into a family of musicians, his brother (who was himself a student of Muzio Clementi) was his primary teacher.
- Though considered a virtuoso pianist with some success, he is best remembered for his piano studies in technique. Among the 20 books comprising 500 études, Le Rudiment de Pianiste and Methode de Piano Elementaire et Facile are the most famous.
- Johnson, Keith. "Henri Bertini." AllMusic. All Media Network, LLC., n.d. Web. 16 Sept. 2016.
- "Henri Bertini: 1798 – 1876 Piano Virtuoso, Music Composer." Google Translate. n.p., n.d. Web. 16 Sept. 2015.
Brodmann piano company established by Prussian born Joseph Brodmann (c. 1771 – 1848) began producing pianos, borrowing from the influence of Ferdinand Hofmann and Anton Walter.
Henri Herz (1803 – 1888): Austrian Pianist, Composer, Teacher, Piano Manufacturer
- A prodigy from a musical family, Herz studied piano with his father and the organist Daniel Hünten.
- In 1816, he attended the Paris Conservatoire (later teaching there) and studied with Louis-Barthélémy Pradher, Victor Dourlen, and Antonín Reicha.
- Asked by Franz Liszt to compose a variation to Hexaméron; other contributors were Frédéric Chopin, Carl Czerny, Johann Peter Pixis, and Sigismond Thalberg.
- Along with his brother Jacques Simon Herz (1794 – 1880), he founded the École Spéciale de Piano de Paris.
- As a pedagogue, he is known for his finger exercises.
- Partnering in a piano-manufacturing firm, he established his own piano factory in 1851 and produced pianos that were considered equal to Érard and Pleyel. His piano was awarded first prize in 1855 at the Paris Exposition.
- In 1836, he built a concert hall.
- Lindeman, Stephen D. "Herz, Henri [Heinrich]." Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press, 2007 – 2015. Web. 16 Sept. 2015.
- Johnson, Keith. "Henri Herz." AllMusic. All Media Network, LLC., n.d. Web. 16 Sept. 2015.
Hector Berlioz (1803 – 1869): French Composer – Romantic Period