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PIANO TIMELINE

History Of The Piano

Tracing the roots of the piano to the very beginning of consciousness, when man first became aware of sound.

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Page 8 of 29 pages

1781, German Action

“German action,” or Prellmechanik, ascribed to Johann Stein, first conceived as early as 1769 and refined during the 1770s. By 1781, hammers mounted directly on the keys.

1781, Diabelli

Portrait of Anton Diabelli, lithograph by Josef Kriehuber and photographed by Peter Geymayer, in 1841.
Portrait of Anton Diabelli, 1841. 1

Anton Diabelli (1781 – 1858): Austrian Publisher, Composer – Classical Period

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[1]
Kriehuber, Josef, lithograph, photograph by Peter Geymayer, and uploaded by Spike~commonswiki.  Anton Diabelli, Lithographie von Josef Kriehuber.  1841.  Private Collection.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 25 Sept. 2006.  Web.  15 Sept. 2015.  Public Domain.

1782, Paganini

Bust of Niccolò Paganini by French sculptor David d'Angers, in the David d’Angers Gallery, Angers, France.
Bust of Niccolò Paganini
by French Sculptor David d'Angers. 1

Nicolò Paganini (1782 – 1840): Italian Composer, Violinist – Classical Period

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[1]
Selbymay.  "Bust of Nicolò Paganini by French Sculptor David d’Angers (1830-1833). Exhibited in David d’Angers Gallery, Angers, France."  Photograph.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 18 November 2011.  Web.  15 Sept. 2015.  CC BY-SA 3.0.

1785, Érard Dispensation

The Luthiers of Paris—losing business due to Érard’s success—tried to shut him down as a nonmember of the guild. As a result, Érard was awarded a special dispensation from Louis XVI to continue making instruments.

Today on the 5th of February, 1785, the King of Versailles states, that sir Sebastian Érard is permitted to enhance the quality of the piano-forte, by means of by him invented methods, which has already resulted in this instrument being favoured above the ones made in England […]

Signed: Louis XVI, Co-signed: Baron de Breteuil 1

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[1]
Janmaat, Fritz.  "About Erard."  Maison Erard.  Maison Erard, n.d.  Web.  15 Sept. 2015.

1785, Kalkbrenner

Portrait detail of Friedrich Kalkbrenner drawn by Auguste Bry, original drawing by Alphonse Farcy.
Portrait Detail of Friedrich Kalkbrenner by Auguste Bry, original drawing by Alphonse Farcy. 1

Friedrich Kalkbrenner (1785 – 1849): German born French Pianist, Composer, Teacher, Piano Manufacturer – Classical Period

  • Studied at the Paris Conservatoire.
  • Wrote Méthode pour Apprendre le Piano à l'aide du Guide-Mains Op. 108 (1831) which included the use of the chiroplast or hand guide, (invented by Johan Bernhard Logier), to aid with hand positioning, it came to be known as “Kalkbrenner’s Technique.”
  • Partner in Pleyel’s Fortepiano Factory.
  • Head of French Pianoforte School.
  • Taught Camille-Marie Stamaty (whose own pupils were Moreau Gottschalk and Camille Saint-Saëns), Arabella Goddard and Marie-Felicite-Denise Pleyel.

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[1]
Lieberknecht, Otfried.  "Portrait detail of Friedrich Kalkbrenner by Auguste Bry, original drawing by Alphonse Farcy."  Scan.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 8 May 2006.  Web.  9 Oct. 2015.  Public Domain.
Additional References:
  • Dekeyser, Paul.  "Kalkbrenner, Frédéric [Friedrich Wilhelm Michael]."  Oxford Music Online.  Oxford University Press, 2007 – 2015.  Web.  14 Sept. 2015.
  • "Friedrich Kalkbrenner."  Palace Pianos.  Palace Pianos, 2008 – 2015.  Web.  15 Sept. 2015.

1785, Wieck

Portrait of Friedrich Wieck at the age of 45, in the Robert-Schumann-Haus Zwickau, Germany.
Portrait of Friedrich Wieck at the Age of 45. 1

Friedrich Wieck (1785 – 1873): German Piano Teacher, Writer – Classical Period

  • Among his writings are Piano and Song (Clavier und Gesang; Didaktisches und Polemisches) (1853), which focuses on elementary teaching, and Piano and Song How to Teach, How to Learn and How to Form a Judgment of Musical Performances.
  • He taught Robert Schumann, Hans von Bülow, and his daughter Clara Schumann.

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[1]
Deschreiber.  "Painting Portrait of Friedrich Wieck at age 45."  Photograph.  Original in Robert-Schumann-Haus Zwickau, Germany.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 25 Sept. 2011.  Web.  21 Sept. 2015.  Public Domain.

1786, Carl Maria von Weber

Portrait of Carl Maria von Weber, painted by Ferdinand Schimon in 1825, in the Carl Maria Weber House, Dresden, Germany.
Portrait of Carl Maria von Weber
by Ferdinand Schimon, 1825. 1

Carl Maria von Weber (1786 – 1826): German Composer, Conductor, Pianist, Critic – Romantic Period

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[1]
Schimon, Ferdinand, and uploaded by Squigly2971. Carl Maria von Weber. 1825. Carl Maria von Weber House, Dresden. Commons Wikimedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 12 Sept. 2012. Web. 15 Sept. 2015. Public Domain.

1791, Czerny

Portrait of Carl Czerny, lithograph by Josef Kriehuber and photographed by Peter Geymayer, in 1833.
Portrait of Carl Czerny 
Lithograph by Josef Kriehuber, photographed by Peter Geymayer, 1833. 1

Carl Czerny (1791 – 1857): Austrian Piano Teacher, Composer, Pianist, Theorist, Historian – Classical Period

  • Taught by Beethoven and Hummel.
  • Absorbed some of Clementi’s teaching methods as his own.
  • Noted for his piano technical exercises.
  • Among his many technical works are School of Velocity (Études de la vélocité Op. 299), Nouveau Gradus ad Parnassum Op. 822 (1854 – 46 studies), and Pianoforte-Schule, op.500.
  • Some of his pupils: Franz Liszt, Sigismund Thalberg, and Stephen Heller.

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[1]
Gede~commonswiki.  "Kriehuber, Josef, and photograph by Peter Geymayer of Carl Czerny, 1833."  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 2 Oct. 2005.  Web.  16 Sept. 2015.  Public Domain.
Additional References:
  • Lindeman, Stephen D., and George Barth.  "Czerny, Carl."  Oxford Music Online.  Oxford University Press, 2007 – 2015.  Web.  16 Sept. 2015.
  • "Biography of Carl Czerny."  Hanon-Online.  Hanon-Online, 2010 – 2015.  Web.  16 Sept. 2015.
  • "Carl Czerny: in the Shadow of Beethoven."  The Free Library.  Queen’s Quarterly and Gale, Cengage Learning, 1997.  Web.  16 Sept. 2015.
  • "Piano Studies by Czerny."  Piano Exercises.  Piano Exercises and Riff Spot, 2012.  Web.  16 Sept. 2015.

1792, Érard London

Due to the French Revolution, Érard moved to London in 1792 and opened a shop (though records showing he began doing business as early as 1786); along with pianos, he began manufacturing harps in which he made many improvements and was awarded many patents.

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Additional References:
  • "Sébastian Érard (1752)."  Butchoff.  Butchoff Antiques, 2012.  Web.  16 Sept. 2015.

1792, Mason

Portrait of Lowell Mason.
Portrait of Lowell Mason. 1

Lowell Mason (1792 – 1872): American Sacred Music Composer, Anthologist, Music Educator

  • Composed over 1600 Hymns and held the title "Father of American Church Music."
  • He served as the president of the Händel and Haydn Society.
  • Music Director of the Essex Street Church, the Park Street Church, and the Hanover Street Church (Bowdoin Street Church).
  • In 1828 began teaching children music adapting a similar philosophy as Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, a swiss reformer who believed that children learn better through direct experience than rote instruction .
  • In 1832 He formed Boston Academy of Music and served as its head. The success of this Academy led him to become an advocate for music instruction in public schools.
  • Served as Superintendent of Music for the Boston Schools. In support of his work he wrote Manual of the Boston Academy of Music (1834) and created teacher training seminars known as Musical Convention from 1836 - 1851.
  • In 1855 was awarded an honorary doctorate from NYU.

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[1]
RJHall.  "Portrait of Lowell Mason."  Scan.  Wikipedia.Org.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 23 March 2005.  Web. 9 Oct. 2015.  Public Domain.
Additional References:
  • Eskew. Harry, and Carol A. Pemberton.  "Lowell Mason."  Oxford Music Online.  Oxford University Press, 2007 – 2016.  Web.  9 Oct 2015.
  • "Lowell Mason."  HymnTime.  HymnTime.Com, 28 Nov. 2015.  Web.  9 Oct. 2015.
  • "Lowell Mason."  Hymnary.  Hymnary.Org, n.d.  Web.  9 Oct. 2015.
  • Pratt, Michael, Dr.  "A Biography of Lowell Mason: The Father of American Music Education."  MicahelPratt.Wordpress.  Pratt Music Co., 4 Sept. 2009.  Web.  9 Oct. 2015.
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