Tracing the roots of the piano to the very beginning of consciousness, when man first became aware of sound.
Harold Bauer (1873 – 1951): English born American Pianist, Violinist, Teacher
- Originally followed in his father’s footsteps, who was a violinist, Bauer studied the violin under Adolf Pollitzer and his father.
- He briefly studied piano under Ignacy Jan Paderewski who encouraged him to focus on the piano instead of the violin.
- In his approach to technique, he felt “one must first imagine the sound, and then find a natural and coordinated motion to produce it;” and “nothing in education was more important than the development of the imagination, without which life would be on horrid grind of monotonous routine.” [ 2 ]
- Founded the Beethoven Society of New York.
- President of Friends of Music of the Library of Congress.
- Head of the piano department of Manhattan School of Music and known for his master classes.
1873, Steck Prize
First prize for merit (for tone, design, and careful detail of construction) won by George Steck at the Vienna Exposition.
Sergei Rachmaninov (1873 – 1943): Russian Composer, Pianist, Conductor – Late Romantic Period
Arnold Schoenberg (1874 – 1951): Austro-Hungarian Composer – Late Romantic / Early 20th Century Period
Charles Ives (1874 – 1954): American Composer – 20th Century Period
Maurice Ravel (1875 – 1937): French Composer – Late Romantic / Early 20th Century Period
Manuel de Falla (1876 – 1946): Spanish Composer, Pianist – 20th Century Period
Alfred Cortot (1877 – 1962): Swiss Born French Classical Pianist, Conductor, Pedagogue – Romantic Period
- Studied piano at the Paris Conservatoire with Émile Descombes (1829 – 1912) and Louis Diémer (1843 – 1919).
- Appointed choral coach and then assistant conductor for the Bayreuth Festival.
- In 1902, founded Société de Festivals Lyriques.
- Taught at the Paris Conservatoire.
- Founded and served as director of the Ecole Normale de Musique. Influenced by Chopin’s teaching style, Cortot “developed the groundbreaking methods which enabled them to be passed on to future generations.” [ 2 ]
- His book Rational Principals of Pianoforte Technique (1928) “divided systematic exercises into five categories: 1) equality, independence and mobility of the fingers; 2) scales-arpeggios; 3) double notes and polyphonic playing; 4) the technique of extensions; 5) wrist technique and execution of chords. The immediate goal of those warm-up exercises is to loosen the playing mechanism, though the pianist can apply those ideas directly into playing the main repertoire.” [ 3 ]
- Some of his pupils: Dinu Lipatti, Clara Haskil, and Marguerite Monnet.
- "Alfred Cortot." Naxos. Naxos Digital Services Ltd., n.d. Web. 17 Sept. 2015.
1877, Kimball Organ
W.W. Kimball Piano Company began making its own instruments—reed organs.
- "Kimball." Antique Piano Shop. Antique Piano Shop, n.d. Web. 17 Sept 2015.
- "Kimball Pianos." Total Piano Care. Total Piano Care, 2008 – 2015. Web. 17 Sept. 2015.
Wanda Landowska (1879 – 1959): Polish Virtuoso Pianist, Harpsichordist, Composer
- Founded Ecole de Musique Ancienne in Saint-Leu-la-Foret, Center for Performance and study of old music, which housed her extensive collection of keyboard instruments, books, and manuscripts.
- Noted for her revival of the harpsichord and the first person to record Bach’s Goldberg Variations on it.
- Manuel de Falla & Francis Poulenc wrote works for her.
- Wrote Music of the Past (Musique Ancienne) (1909), “a pioneering book about the harpsichord and its repertory.” [ 2 ]
- "Wanda Landowska." Naxos. Naxos Digital Services Ltd., n.d. Web. 17 Sept. 2015.
- Kim, Quentin. "The Legacy of Wanda Landowska." The Juilliard Journal. The Juilliard Journal, April 2009. Web. 17 Sept. 2015.