Tracing the roots of the piano to the very beginning of consciousness, when man first became aware of sound.
Érard granted a patent for the double-escapement “repetition” action.
Heinrich Ehrlich (1822 – 1899): Austrian Pianist, Teacher, Writer, Critic
- Pupil of Adolf Henselt, Karl Maria von Bocklet, Sigismund Thalberg, and Simon Sechter.
- Ehrlich held many professions: court pianist to King George V, journalist and piano teacher in Berlin (teaching at the Stern Conservatory), and music critic for Neue Berliner Musikzeitung, Sie Gegenwart, Die Tribüne, and Berliner Tageblatt.
- Some of his pupils: Franz Mannstädt, Friedrich Spiro, and Wilibald Nagel.
- Among his many pedagogical writings, he is most noted for his edition of Carl Tausig’s Daily Studies (Tägliche Studien für Pianoforte) (1873) which was published after Tausig’s death and How to Practise on the Piano: Reflections and Suggestions with Precise Directions for the Proper Use of the Tausig-Ehrlich “Daily Studies.” (Wie übt man am Klavier? Betrachtungen und Rathschläge nebst genauer Anweisung für den richtigen Gebrauch der Tausig-Ehrlich’schen ‘Tägliche Studien’) (1879)
- Colles, H.C., and R. "Ehrlich, (Karl) Heinrich (Alfred)." Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press, 2007 – 2015. Web. 17 Sept. 2015.
1823, Adolph Kullak
Adolph Kullak (1823 – 1862): Polish Music Critic (Brother of Theodor Kullak)
- Co-Editor of Berliner Musik-Zeitung.
- Taught at his brother’s school Neue Akademie der Tonkunst.
- Among his writings is The Aesthetics of Pianoforte Playing (Die Ästhetik des Klavierspiels ) (1860/1861), which covers piano technique and musical expression and “… was arguably the most widely read and influential book on piano teaching and playing of the nineteenth century…” [ 2 ]
- Another work The Art of the Touch: A Work for the Use of Advanced Players and a Guide for Teaching Pianoforte (1855) is highly revered.
- Millar, Andrew Peter. "Adolph Kullak’s “Die Asthetik des Klavierspiels” and the Emergence of Modern Piano Technique by the Late Nineteenth Century [microform]." National Library of Australia. National Library of Australia, 2004. Web. 17, Sept. 2015.
- Palmieri, Robert, ed. The Piano: An Encyclopedia. 2nd Edition. New York: Routledge, June 1, 2004. Google Books. Web. 14 Sept. 2015.
Chickering and Sons (originally Stewart & Chickering) established by Jonas Chickering (1798 – 1853) and James Stewart, in Boston, Massachusetts.
- "Chickering & Sons." Antique Piano Shop. Antique Piano Shop, n.d. Web. 17 Sept 2015.
- Kuntz, Ed. "A Short History of the Chickering Piano Co." Calgary Community Network Assoc. Calgary Community Network Assoc., n.d. Web. 17 Sept. 2015.
- Dolge, Alfred. Pianos and Their Makers: A Comprehensive History of the Development of the Piano from the Monochord to the Concert Grand Player Piano, Volume 1. Covina: Covina Publishing Company, 1911. Google Books. Web. 17 Sept. 2015.
Anton Bruckner (1824 – 1896): Austrian Composer – Romantic Period
Bedřich Smetana (1824 – 1884): Czech Composer, Conductor, Critic – Romantic Period
Eduard Hanslick (1825 – 1904): Austrian Music Critic, Aesthetician, Historian
- Taught ‘history and aesthetics of music’ at the University of Vienna.
- Among his many writings, The Beautiful in Music (Vom Musikalisch-Schönen) (1854), about the aesthetics in music, was his most famous works.
- Critical of Wagner and the New German School.
1825, Brodmann Patent
Joseph Brodmann patented the three-ply soundboard, which served to facilitate increased string tension.
Richard Hol (1825 – 1904): Dutch Composer, Conductor, Pianist – Romantic Period
1825, Strauss II
Johann Strauss II (1825 – 1899): Austrian Composer, Conductor, Violinist (Son of Johann Strauss I) – Romantic Period