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PIANO TIMELINE

History Of The Piano

Tracing the roots of the piano to the very beginning of consciousness, when man first became aware of sound.

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1821, Érard

Érard granted a patent for the double-escapement “repetition” action.

1822, Ehrlich

Heinrich Ehrlich (1822 – 1899): Austrian Pianist, Teacher, Writer, Critic

  • Pupil of Adolf Henselt, Karl Maria von Bocklet, Sigismund Thalberg, and Simon Sechter.
  • Ehrlich held many professions: court pianist to King George V, journalist and piano teacher in Berlin (teaching at the Stern Conservatory), and music critic for Neue Berliner Musikzeitung, Sie Gegenwart, Die Tribüne, and Berliner Tageblatt.
  • Some of his pupils: Franz Mannstädt, Friedrich Spiro, and Wilibald Nagel.
  • Among his many pedagogical writings, he is most noted for his edition of Carl Tausig’s Daily Studies (Tägliche Studien für Pianoforte) (1873) which was published after Tausig’s death and How to Practise on the Piano: Reflections and Suggestions with Precise Directions for the Proper Use of the Tausig-Ehrlich “Daily Studies.” (Wie übt man am Klavier? Betrachtungen und Rathschläge nebst genauer Anweisung für den richtigen Gebrauch der Tausig-Ehrlich’schen ‘Tägliche Studien’) (1879)

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Additional References:
  • Colles, H.C., and R.  "Ehrlich, (Karl) Heinrich (Alfred)."  Oxford Music Online.  Oxford University Press, 2007 – 2015.  Web.  17 Sept. 2015.

1823, Adolph Kullak

Book cover of Dr. Adolph Kullak's 'Die Asthetik des Klavierspiels' from 1905.
Adolph Kullak's 'Die Asthetik des Klavierspiels,' 1905. 1

Adolph Kullak (1823 – 1862): Polish Music Critic (Brother of Theodor Kullak)

  • Co-Editor of Berliner Musik-Zeitung.
  • Taught at his brother’s school Neue Akademie der Tonkunst.
  • Among his writings is The Aesthetics of Pianoforte Playing (Die Ästhetik des Klavierspiels ) (1860/1861), which covers piano technique and musical expression and “… was arguably the most widely read and influential book on piano teaching and playing of the nineteenth century…” [ 2 ]
  • Another work The Art of the Touch: A Work for the Use of Advanced Players and a Guide for Teaching Pianoforte (1855) is highly revered.

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[1]
Kullak, Adolf, and Walter Niemann, and uploaded by WhitneyYoung.   Die Asthetik des Klavierspiels.  Book Cover.  Leipzig: C.F. Kahnt, 1905.   Open Library.Org.  Internet Archive, 9 April 2012.  Web.  12 Oct. 2015.  No Known Copyright Restrictions.
[2]
Sutcliffe, W. Dean, ed.  Haydn Studies.  New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998 (digital, 2006).  Google Books.  Web.  17 Sept. 2014.
Additional References:
  • Millar, Andrew Peter.  "Adolph Kullak’s “Die Asthetik des Klavierspiels” and the Emergence of Modern Piano Technique by the Late Nineteenth Century [microform]."  National Library of Australia.  National Library of Australia, 2004.  Web.  17, Sept. 2015.
  • Palmieri, Robert, ed.  The Piano: An Encyclopedia.  2nd Edition.  New York: Routledge, June 1, 2004.  Google Books.  Web. 14 Sept. 2015.

1823, Chickering

Tracing from the engraved nameboard for Jonas Chickering c. 1828-1830.
Jonas Chickering Engraved Nameboard Plaque, c. 1828-1830. 1

Chickering and Sons (originally Stewart & Chickering) established by Jonas Chickering (1798 – 1853) and James Stewart, in Boston, Massachusetts.

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[1]
Mireut.  "Jonas Chickering Engraved Nameboard Plaque, c. 1828 - 1830."  Traced from an Engraving.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 24 Jan. 2009.  Web.  12 Oct. 2015.  Public Domain.
Additional References:
  • "Chickering & Sons."  Antique Piano Shop.  Antique Piano Shop, n.d.  Web.  17 Sept 2015.
  • Kuntz, Ed.  "A Short History of the Chickering Piano Co."  Calgary Community Network Assoc.  Calgary Community Network Assoc., n.d.  Web.  17 Sept. 2015.
  • Dolge, Alfred.  Pianos and Their Makers: A Comprehensive History of the Development of the Piano from the Monochord to the Concert Grand Player Piano, Volume 1.  Covina: Covina Publishing Company, 1911.  Google Books.  Web. 17 Sept. 2015.

1824, Bruckner

Portrait of Anton Bruckner painted by Josef Büche.
Portrait of Anton Bruckner by Josef Büche. 1

Anton Bruckner (1824 – 1896): Austrian Composer – Romantic Period

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[1]
BiffTheUnderstudy.  "Portrait of Anton Bruckner by Josef Büche."  Painting.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 6 March 2007.  Web.  12 Oct. 2015.  Public Domain.

1824, Smetana

Portrait of Bedřich Smetana, c. 1878.
Portrait of Bedřich Smetana, c. 1878. 1

Bedřich Smetana (1824 – 1884): Czech Composer, Conductor, Critic – Romantic Period

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[1]
Smeira.  "Portrait of Bedřich Smetana, c. 1878."  Photograph.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia foundation, Inc., 31 Jan. 2008.  Web.  12 Oct. 2015.  Public Domain.

1825, Hanslick

Lithograph portrait of Eduard Hanslick by Rudolf Krziwanek.
Portrait of Eduard Hanslick by Rudolf Krziwanek. 1

Eduard Hanslick (1825 – 1904): Austrian Music Critic, Aesthetician, Historian

  • Taught ‘history and aesthetics of music’ at the University of Vienna.
  • Among his many writings, The Beautiful in Music (Vom Musikalisch-Schönen) (1854), about the aesthetics in music, was his most famous works.
  • Critical of Wagner and the New German School.

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[1]
H., Martin.  "Portrait of Eduard Hanslick by Rudolf Krziwanek."  Lithograph.  Original in Austrian National Library, Picture Archive Austria, Wien.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 27 Feb. 2011.  Web.  12 Oct. 2015.  Public Domain.

1825, Brodmann Patent

Joseph Brodmann patented the three-ply soundboard, which served to facilitate increased string tension.

1825, Hol

Portrait of Richard Hol, photographed by Johannes Jacobus Mesker, in 1884.
Portrait of Richard Hol, 1884. 1

Richard Hol (1825 – 1904): Dutch Composer, Conductor, Pianist – Romantic Period

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[1]
Gouwenaar.  "Portrait of Richard Hol by Johannes Jacobus Mesker, 1884."  Photograph.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 10 Aug. 2009.  Web. 14 Oct. 2015.  Public Domain.

1825, Strauss II

Gold statue of Johann Strauss II, photographed by Dennis Jarvis.
Statue of Johann Strauss II. 1

Johann Strauss II (1825 – 1899): Austrian Composer, Conductor, Violinist (Son of Johann Strauss I) – Romantic Period

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[1]
Jarvis, Dennis.  "Austria-00303 – Johann Strauss II Up Close."  Photograph.  Flickr.  Flickr, a Yahoo Company, 3 June 2013.  Web.  12 Oct. 2015.  CC BY-SA 2.0.
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