Tracing the roots of the piano to the very beginning of consciousness, when man first became aware of sound.
Franz Liszt (1811 – 1886): Hungarian Composer, Pianist, Teacher – Romantic Period
Sigismond Thalberg (1812 – 1871): Swiss Pianist, Composer – Romantic Period
- A pupil of Mittag, Simon Sechter, Johann Nepomuk Hummel, J.P. Pixis, Kalkbrenner, and Ignaz Moscheles.
- Considered an important virtuoso pianist of the 19th century, rivaling Franz Liszt.
- Developed a “three-handed technique” using his thumbs that gave the impression that three hands were playing. “He not only possessed the mastery of touch in a transcendent degree and excelled in sostenuto playing by the use of the pedal, but actually discovered a method of making two hands produce the triple effect of melody, accompaniment, and bass on one keyboard.” [ 2 ]
- In his work The Art of Song Applied to the Piano (L’art du Chant Appliqué au Piano, Op.70) (1853/1854), Thalberg’s “method comprises twenty-five transcriptions of vocal works by other composers, primarily operatic material. Each piece usually included Thalberg’s own introductory comment, consisting of some remarks and instructions based on a set of rules.” [ 3 ]
- Wangermée, Robert. "Thalberg, Sigismond (Fortuné François)." Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press, 2007 – 2015. Web. 16 Sept. 2015.
- Gailey, Meredith. "Sigismund Thalberg." AllMusic. All Media Netwrok, LLC., n.d. Web. 16 Sept. 2015.
C.1812 - 1813, Ear Trumpets
Ear trumpets in a variety of dimensions invented by Johann Nepomuk Mälzel (1772 – 1838) to assist Beethoven as his hearing worsened.
Giuseppe Verdi (1813 – 1901): Italian Composer, Organist – Romantic Period
Wilhelm Richard Wagner (1813 – 1883): German Composer – Romantic Period
Adolf von Henselt (1814 – 1889): German Pianist, Composer, Teacher
- Prior to the piano, Henselt studied violin.
- He was a pupil of Abbé Vogler (1749 – 1814), Johann Nepomuk Hummel, and Simon Sechter (1788 – 1867).
- Practiced for ten hours a day.
- Developed a technique to extend the reach of his hands (which led to his now famous legato), giving him more control over the keyboard without using the sustaining pedal.
- Retired from performance due to stage fright.
- Most of his works composed by his 30’s.
- He became a great teacher in St. Petersburg, influencing many Russian pianists. Some of his pupils: Nikolay Zverev (who taught Sergei Rachmaninov), Nikolay Ber, and Ingeborg Stark.
- Davis, Beattie. "Adolf von Henselt (1814 – 1889)." Henselt Society. Gillian Davis, 2013. Web. 16 Sept. 2015.
- "Adolf von Henselt." Saint Petersburg. Saint-Petersburg.Com, 2001 – 2015. Web. 16 Sept. 2015.
- Stevenson, Joseph. "Adolf Henselt." AllMusic. All Media Network, LLC., n.d. Web. 16 Sept. 2015.
1818, Theodor Kullak
Theodor Kullak (1818 – 1882): Polish Pianist, Teacher – Romantic Period (Brother of Adolph Kullak)
- Pupil of Czerny, Nicolai, and Simon Sechter.
- Founded along with Julius Stern and Adolf Bernhard Marx, Tonkünstler-Verein, a conservatory for music education in Berlin. (Due to differences, Kullak resigned and it became the Stern Conservatory 1855, with Hans von Bülow succeeding him).
- After leaving Stern, he founded Neue Akademie der Tonkunst primarily for pianists. Also known as ‘Kullak’s Academy.’
- Considered one of the greatest pedagogues in 19th century.
- Wrote Octave‐school or School of Octave Playing (Die Schule des Oktavenspiels) (1848).
- Some of his pupils: Moritz Moszkowski, Nikolai Rubinstein, and Xaver Scharwenka.
- "Kullak: (1) Theodor Kullak." Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press, 2007 – 2015. Web. 16 Sept. 2015.
- Palmieri, Robert, ed. The Piano: An Encyclopedia. 2nd Edition. New York: Routledge, June 1, 2004. Google Books. Web. 14 Sept. 2015.
- Lane, Piers. "Theodor Kullak." Hyperion Records. Hyperion Records Limited, 1999. Web. 16 Sept. 2015.
Charles-Louis Hanon (1819 – 1900): French Composer, Piano Pedagogue – Romantic Period
- Trained and worked as an organist.
- Among his writings, his most famous is The Virtuoso Pianist in 60 Exercises (Le Piano Virtuose en 60 Exercices) (1873/1874). Regarded highly by his contemporaries such as Felix le Coupey and Georges Mathias. Sergei Rachmaninoff is said to have used Hanon’s exercises on a daily basis.
- Clarfield, Ingrid Jacobson, ed. "Burgmüller, Czerny & Hanon – 32 Piano Studies Selected for Technique and Musicality, Vol 1." New York: Alfred Music Publishing, 2001. Google Books. Web. 17 Sept. 2014.
1819, C Schumann
Clara Schumann (1819 – 1896): German Pianist, Composer, Teacher (Daughter of Friedrich Wieck, wife of Robert Schumann) – Romantic Period
Celebrate the bicentenary birth of Clara Schumann!
Jacques Offenbach (1819 – 1880): French Composer of German Origin – Romantic Period