MUSIC THROUGH THE AGES

Development Of The Piano: A Timeline
Tracing the roots of the piano to the very beginning of consciousness,
when man first became aware of sound.
Page 11 of 28 pages

Sigismond Thalberg (1812 – 1871) — Pianist, Composer – Romantic Period

  • A pupil of Mittag, Simon Sechter, Johann Nepomuk Hummel, J.P. Pixis, Kalkbrenner, and Ignaz Moscheles.
  • Considered an important virtuoso pianist of the 19th century, rivaling Franz Liszt.
  • Developed a “three-handed technique” using his thumbs that gave the impression that three hands were playing. “He not only possessed the mastery of touch in a transcendent degree and excelled in sostenuto playing by the use of the pedal, but actually discovered a method of making two hands produce the triple effect of melody, accompaniment, and bass on one keyboard.” [ 2 ]
  • In his work The Art of Song Applied to the Piano (L’art du Chant Appliqué au Piano, Op.70) (1853/1854), Thalberg’s “method comprises twenty-five transcriptions of vocal works by other composers, primarily operatic material. Each piece usually included Thalberg’s own introductory comment, consisting of some remarks and instructions based on a set of rules.” [ 3 ]

Portrait of Sigismund Thalberg – Lithograph by Joseph Kriehuber, Photographed by Peter Geymayer, 1841. [ 1 ]


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Kriehuber, Joseph, lithographer, and Peter Geymayer, photographer.  Portrait of Sigismund Thalberg.  1841.  Photograph.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 6 Jan. 2007.  Web.  9 Oct. 2015.  Public Domain. 
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"Sigismond Thalberg."  New Advent.  Kevin Knight, 2012.  Web.  16 Sept. 2015.
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Jovell, Patrick.  "Sigismond Thalberg’s 200th Anniversary."  Piano Street.  Op 111 Productions, 2001 – 2013.  Web. 16 Sept. 2015.
Additional References:
  • Wangermée, Robert.  "Thalberg, Sigismond (Fortuné François)."  Oxford Music Online.  Oxford University Press, 2007 – 2015.  Web.  16 Sept. 2015.
  • Gailey, Meredith.  "Sigismund Thalberg."  AllMusic.  All Media Netwrok, LLC., n.d.  Web.  16 Sept. 2015.

Portrait of Richard Wagner by Pierre Petit, 1861. [ 1 ]

Wilhelm Richard Wagner (1813 – 1883) — German Composer – Romantic Period


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Petit, Pierre, and uploaded by QwertyUSA~commonswiki.  Photograph of Richard Wagner, Paris 1861.  1861.  3rd-Party Reproduction from Die Bildnisse Ricahrd Wagners.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 15 May 2007.  Web.  16 Sept. 2015.  Public Domain. 

Photograph of Giuseppe Verdi by Ferdinand Mulnier, c. 1870. [ 1 ]

Giuseppe Verdi (1813 – 1901) — Italian Composer, Organist – Romantic Period


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Mulnier, Ferdinand, and uploaded by Al Pereira.  Photograph of Giuseppe Verdi.  c. 1870.  Private Collector originally reproduced in Galerie Contemporaine, France.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 18 Sept. 2007.  Web.  16 Sept. 2015.  Public Domain. 

Signed Portrait
of Adolf von Henselt
. [ 1 ]

Adolf von Henselt (1814 – 1889) — German Pianist, Composer, Teacher

  • Prior to the piano, Henselt studied violin.
  • He was a pupil of Abbé Vogler (1749 – 1814), Johann Nepomuk Hummel, and Simon Sechter (1788 – 1867).
  • Practiced for ten hours a day.
  • Developed a technique to extend the reach of his hands (which led to his now famous legato), giving him more control over the keyboard without using the sustaining pedal.
  • Retired from performance due to stage fright.
  • Most of his works composed by his 30’s.
  • He became a great teacher in St. Petersburg, influencing many Russian pianists. Some of his pupils: Nikolay Zverev (who taught Sergei Rachmaninov), Nikolay Ber, and Ingeborg Stark.


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File Upload Bot.  "Signed Portrait of Adolf von Henselt."  Scan.  Located in the New York Public Library Digital Gallery, New York.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 2 Dec. 2009.  Web.  12 Oct. 2015.  Public Domain. 
Additional References:
  • Davis, Beattie.  "Adolf von Henselt (1814 – 1889)."  Henselt Society.  Gillian Davis, 2013.  Web. 16 Sept. 2015.
  • "Adolf von Henselt."  Saint Petersburg.  Saint-Petersburg.Com, 2001 – 2015.  Web. 16 Sept. 2015.
  • Stevenson, Joseph.  "Adolf Henselt."  AllMusic.  All Media Network, LLC., n.d.  Web.  16 Sept. 2015.

Theodor Kullak (1818 – 1882) — Polish Pianist, Teacher – Romantic Period (Brother of Adolph Kullak)

  • Pupil of Czerny, Nicolai, and Simon Sechter.
  • Founded along with Julius Stern and Adolf Bernhard Marx, Tonkünstler-Verein, a conservatory for music education in Berlin. (Due to differences, Kullak resigned and it became the Stern Conservatory 1855, with Hans von Bülow succeeding him).
  • After leaving Stern, he founded Neue Akademie der Tonkunst primarily for pianists. Also known as ‘Kullak’s Academy.’
  • Considered one of the greatest pedagogues in 19th century.
  • Wrote Octave‐school or School of Octave Playing (Die Schule des Oktavenspiels) (1848).
  • Some of his pupils: Moritz Moszkowski, Nikolai Rubinstein, and Xaver Scharwenka.

Portrait of Theodor Kullak,
c. 1892. [ 1 ]


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Андрей Романенко.  "Portrait of Theodor Kullak, c. 1892."  Scan of a Drawing.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 3 Sept. 2010.  Web.  12 Oct. 2015.  Public Domain. 
Additional References:
  • "Kullak: (1) Theodor Kullak."  Oxford Music Online.  Oxford University Press, 2007 – 2015.  Web.  16 Sept. 2015.
  • Palmieri, Robert, ed.  The Piano: An Encyclopedia.  2nd Edition.  New York: Routledge, June 1, 2004.  Google Books.  Web. 14 Sept. 2015.
  • Lane, Piers.  "Theodor Kullak."  Hyperion Records.  Hyperion Records Limited, 1999.  Web.  16 Sept. 2015.

Portrait of Jaques Offenbach by Fritz Luckhardt, c. 1874. [ 1 ]

Jacques Offenbach (1819 – 1880) — French Composer of German Origin – Romantic Period


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Luckhardt, Fritz, and uploaded by ChristophT.  Jaques Offenbach.  c. 1874. National Portrait Gallery, London.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 30 Dec. 2007.  Web.  17 Sept. 2015.  Public Domain. 

Portrait of Clara Schumann by Franz Hanfstaengl, 1857. [ 1 ]

Clara Schumann (1819 – 1896) — German Pianist, Composer, Teacher (Daughter of Friedrich Wieck, wife of Robert Schumann) – Romantic Period


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Hanfstaengl, Franz and uploaded by ‪Meister Raro~commonswiki.  Clara Schumann.  1857.  Photograph.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 11 Jan. 2006.  Web.  17 Sept. 2015.  Public Domain. 

Charles-Louis Hanon (1819 – 1900) — French Composer, Piano Pedagogue – Romantic Period

  • Trained and worked as an organist.
  • Among his writings, his most famous is The Virtuoso Pianist in 60 Exercises (Le Piano Virtuose en 60 Exercices) (1873/1874). Regarded highly by his contemporaries such as Felix le Coupey and Georges Mathias. Sergei Rachmaninoff is said to have used Hanon’s exercises on a daily basis.

Hanon  – The Virtuoso Pianist
in Sixty Exercises
. [ 1 ]


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Schirmer’s Library of Musical Classics.  "Hanon’s 'The Virtuoso Pianist in Sixty Exercises'."  Sheet Music.  di-arezzo.  DI-AREZZO, n.d. Web.  12 Oct. 2015.  No Known Copyright Restrictions. 
Additional References:
  • Clarfield, Ingrid Jacobson, ed.  "Burgmüller, Czerny & Hanon – 32 Piano Studies Selected for Technique and Musicality, Vol 1."  New York: Alfred Music Publishing, 2001.  Google Books.  Web. 17 Sept. 2014.

Érard granted a patented for the double-escapement “repetition” action.

Heinrich Ehrlich (1822 – 1899) — Austrian Pianist, Teacher, Writer, Critic

  • Pupil of Adolf Henselt, Karl Maria von Bocklet, Sigismund Thalberg, and Simon Sechter.
  • Ehrlich held many professions: court pianist to King George V, journalist and piano teacher in Berlin (teaching at the Stern Conservatory), and music critic for Neue Berliner Musikzeitung, Sie Gegenwart, Die Tribüne, and Berliner Tageblatt.
  • Some of his pupils: Franz Mannstädt, Friedrich Spiro, and Wilibald Nagel.
  • Among his many pedagogical writings, he is most noted for his edition of Carl Tausig’s Daily Studies (Tägliche Studien für Pianoforte) (1873) which was published after Tausig’s death and How to Practise on the Piano: Reflections and Suggestions with Precise Directions for the Proper Use of the Tausig-Ehrlich “Daily Studies.” (Wie übt man am Klavier? Betrachtungen und Rathschläge nebst genauer Anweisung für den richtigen Gebrauch der Tausig-Ehrlich’schen ‘Tägliche Studien’) (1879)


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Additional References:
  • Colles, H.C., and R.  "Ehrlich, (Karl) Heinrich (Alfred)."  Oxford Music Online.  Oxford University Press, 2007 – 2015.  Web.  17 Sept. 2015.
Page 11 of 28 pages

[ CLOSE ]
 

Additional References:
  • Mastehead Image: O’Donnell, Dylan.  "Piano Strings."  Photograph.  Deography.  Dylan O’Donnell, 1 Nov. 2010.  Web.  18 June 2015.  Public Domain.
  • Mandalatrece, Jim Doney.  "History of an Ascended Master, His Connection with Essenes, and The Secrecy of The Kanon."  ThaKanon.  Jim Doney Mandalatrece, n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • Blaise, Gary.  "The Early String Keyboards."  Gary Blaise.  Gary Blaise Early Keyboard Instruments, n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "History of Classical Music."  Naxos.  Naxos Digital Services Ltd., n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "History of the Piano."  Piano Technicians Guild.  Piano Technicians Guild, Inc. n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "Development of the Piano."  Bluebook of Piano.  Bluebook of Pianos, 1933 – 2015.  18 June 2015.
  • Estrella, Steven G.  "Stylistic Timeline of Music History."  Steven Estrella.  Steven G. Estrella, 2013.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "The History of Graphical Music Notation."  Block Museum.  Mary and Leigh Block Museum of Art, n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "The Piano Time Line: A Chronological History."  Concert Pitch Piano.  Concert Pitch Piano Services, 2000 – 2015.  Web.  18 June. 2015.
  • "History of the Piano."  Piano Tuners.  The UK Piano Pages, 1996 – 2015.  Web.  18 June. 2015.
  • Weinstock, Ron.  "A Personal List of Ten Great Blues Pianists."  In a Blue Mood.  In a Blue Mood, 25 Sept. 2009.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "Romantic Music."  Essential Humanities.  Essential Humanities, 2008 – 2013.  Web.  19 June 2015.
  • "List of Romantic-Era Composers."  Wikipedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 15 Sept. 2015.  Web.  18 Sept. 2015.
  • Duchen, Jessica.  "Top 20: The World’s Greatest Pianists."  Sinfini Music.  Sinfini Music, 23 April 2014.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • Solomon, Jon.  "The Ten Best Jazz Pianists of All Time."  Westword.  Denver Westword, LLC., 27 Aug. 2013.  18 June 2015.
  • Sturm, Connie Arrau, Debra Brubaker Burs, and Anita Jackson, eds.  "Annotated Bibliography of Sources on the History of Piano Technique and Piano Pedagogy."  Piano Technique.  Piano Technique.Net, n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • Groves Music Online for Music Research.  Oxford Music Online.  Oxford University Press, 2007 – 2015.  Web.  June – December 2015.
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