MUSIC THROUGH THE AGES

Development Of The Piano: A Timeline
Tracing the roots of the piano to the very beginning of consciousness,
when man first became aware of sound.
Page 18 of 28 pages

Harold Bauer (1873 – 1951) — English born American Pianist, Violinist, Teacher

  • Originally followed in his father’s footsteps, who was a violinist, Bauer studied the violin under Adolf Pollitzer and his father.
  • He briefly studied piano under Ignacy Jan Paderewski who encouraged him to focus on the piano instead of the violin.
  • In his approach to technique, he felt “one must first imagine the sound, and then find a natural and coordinated motion to produce it;” and “nothing in education was more important than the development of the imagination, without which life would be on horrid grind of monotonous routine.” [ 2 ]
  • Founded the Beethoven Society of New York.
  • President of Friends of Music of the Library of Congress.
  • Head of the piano department of Manhattan School of Music and known for his master classes.

Harold Bauer Playing Piano,
c. 1915 - 1920. [ 1 ]


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Library of Congress.  "Harold Victor Bauer, c. 1915 - 1920."  Photograph.  Original in Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, D.C., part of the George Grantham Bain Collections, Digital ID ggbain 23591LOC.Gov.  Library of Congress, n.d.  Web.  28 Oct. 2015.  No Known Copyright Restrictions.
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"The Power of Bauer."  Academia.  Academia, n.d.  Web.  17 Sept. 2015.

Photograph of Charles Ives,
c. 1913. [ 1 ]

Charles Ives (1874 – 1954) — American Composer – 20th Century Period


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Mandariine.  "Photograph of Charles Edward Ives, c. 1913."  Photograph.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 6 Feb. 2009.  Web.  28 Oct. 2015.  Public Domain. 

Portrait of Arnold Schönberg 
by Florence Homolka, c. 1948. [ 1 ]

Arnold Schoenberg (1874 – 1951) — Austro-Hungarian Composer – Late Romantic / Early 20th Century Period


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Homolka, Florence, and uploaded by Kelson.  Portrait of Arnold Schönberg.  c. 1948.  Arnold Schönberg Center, Vienna.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundations, Inc., 20 March 2005.  Web.  28 Oct. 2015.  No Known Copyright Restrictions.

Portrait of Maurice Ravel
by Pierre Petit, 1907. [ 1 ]

Maurice Ravel (1875 – 1937) — French Composer – Late Romantic / Early 20th Century Period


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Kokin.  "Portrait of Maurice Ravel, Photographed by Pierre Petit, 1907."  Photograph.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 23 Aug. 2008.  Web.  28 Oct. 2015.  Public Domain.

Portrait of Manuel de Falla[ 1 ]

Manuel de Falla (1876 – 1946) — Spanish Composer, Pianist – 20th Century Period


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Alan.  "Manuel de Falla con Bastón."  Photograph.  From the Archivo Manuel de Falla, Granada.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 25 March 2013.  Public Domain.

W.W. Kimball Piano Company began making its own instruments—reed organs.


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Additional References:
  • "Kimball."  Antique Piano Shop.  Antique Piano Shop, n.d.  Web.  17 Sept 2015.
  • "Kimball Pianos."  Total Piano Care.  Total Piano Care, 2008 – 2015.  Web.  17 Sept. 2015.

Alfred Cortot (1877 – 1962) — Swiss Born French Classical Pianist, Conductor, Pedagogue – Romantic Period

  • Studied piano at the Paris Conservatoire with Émile Descombes (1829 – 1912) and Louis Diémer (1843 – 1919).
  • Appointed choral coach and then assistant conductor for the Bayreuth Festival.
  • In 1902, founded Société de Festivals Lyriques.
  • Taught at the Paris Conservatoire.
  • Founded and served as director of the Ecole Normale de Musique. Influenced by Chopin’s teaching style, Cortot “developed the groundbreaking methods which enabled them to be passed on to future generations.” [ 2 ]
  • His book Rational Principals of Pianoforte Technique (1928) “divided systematic exercises into five categories: 1) equality, independence and mobility of the fingers; 2) scales-arpeggios; 3) double notes and polyphonic playing; 4) the technique of extensions; 5) wrist technique and execution of chords. The immediate goal of those warm-up exercises is to loosen the playing mechanism, though the pianist can apply those ideas directly into playing the main repertoire.” [ 3 ]
  • Some of his pupils: Dinu Lipatti, Clara Haskil, and Marguerite Monnet.

Portrait of Alfred Cortot. [ 1 ]


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Library of Congress.  "Portrait of Alfred Cortot."  Photograph.  Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, D.C., in the George Grantham Bain Collection, Digital ID ggbain.27618LOC.Gov.  Library of Congress, n.d.  Web.  28 Oct. 2015.  No Known Copyright Restrictions.
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Probert, Simon.  "Alfred Cortot: The Ideal Teacher."  Piano Lessons.  Piano Lessons, 2006 – 2015.  Web.  17 Sept. 2015.
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Wu, Li-Fang.  "The Alfred Cortot Study Edition of Chopin’s Etudes & How the Alexander Technique can Facilitate Progress Towards Performance Through His Suggested Exercises."  LSU.  LSU, Dec. 2010.  Web.  17 Sept. 2015.
Additional References:
  • "Alfred Cortot."  Naxos.  Naxos Digital Services Ltd., n.d.  Web.  17 Sept. 2015.

Wanda Landowska Playing the Harpsichord at a Concert, 1937. [ 1 ]

Wanda Landowska (1879 – 1959) — Polish Virtuoso Pianist, Harpsichordist, Composer

  • Founded Ecole de Musique Ancienne in Saint-Leu-la-Foret, Center for Performance and study of old music, which housed her extensive collection of keyboard instruments, books, and manuscripts.
  • Noted for her revival of the harpsichord and the first person to record Bach’s Goldberg Variations on it.
  • Manuel de Falla & Francis Poulenc wrote works for her.
  • Wrote Music of the Past (Musique Ancienne) (1909), “a pioneering book about the harpsichord and its repertory.” [ 2 ]


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Gregory of nyssa.  "Wanda Landowska Playing the Harpsichord at a concert in Lwów, 1937."  Photograph.  Original in The Illustrated Daily Courier – Archive Illustration, National Digital Archives, Warsaw.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 22 Aug. 2015.  Web.  29 Oct. 2015.  Public Domain
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Thomson, Virgil.  "Wanda Landowska."  The New York Review of Books.  NYREV, Inc., 28 Jan. 1965.  Web.  17 Sept. 2015.
Additional References:
  • "Wanda Landowska."  Naxos.  Naxos Digital Services Ltd., n.d.  Web.  17 Sept. 2015.
  • Kim, Quentin.  "The Legacy of Wanda Landowska."  The Juilliard Journal.  The Juilliard Journal, April 2009.  Web.  17 Sept. 2015.

Wurlitzer began manufacturing pianos.

Portrait of Béla Bartók, 1927. [ 1 ]

Béla Bartók (1881 – 1945) — Hungarian Composer, Pianist, Ethnomusicologist – Late Romantic / Early 20th Century


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KovacsUr.  "Portrait of Béla Bartók, 1927."  Photograph.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 17 Feb. 2006.  Web. 11 Feb. 2016.  Public Domain.
Page 18 of 28 pages

[ CLOSE ]
 

Additional References:
  • Mastehead Image: O’Donnell, Dylan.  "Piano Strings."  Photograph.  Deography.  Dylan O’Donnell, 1 Nov. 2010.  Web.  18 June 2015.  Public Domain.
  • Mandalatrece, Jim Doney.  "History of an Ascended Master, His Connection with Essenes, and The Secrecy of The Kanon."  ThaKanon.  Jim Doney Mandalatrece, n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • Blaise, Gary.  "The Early String Keyboards."  Gary Blaise.  Gary Blaise Early Keyboard Instruments, n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "History of Classical Music."  Naxos.  Naxos Digital Services Ltd., n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "History of the Piano."  Piano Technicians Guild.  Piano Technicians Guild, Inc. n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "Development of the Piano."  Bluebook of Piano.  Bluebook of Pianos, 1933 – 2015.  18 June 2015.
  • Estrella, Steven G.  "Stylistic Timeline of Music History."  Steven Estrella.  Steven G. Estrella, 2013.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "The History of Graphical Music Notation."  Block Museum.  Mary and Leigh Block Museum of Art, n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "The Piano Time Line: A Chronological History."  Concert Pitch Piano.  Concert Pitch Piano Services, 2000 – 2015.  Web.  18 June. 2015.
  • "History of the Piano."  Piano Tuners.  The UK Piano Pages, 1996 – 2015.  Web.  18 June. 2015.
  • Weinstock, Ron.  "A Personal List of Ten Great Blues Pianists."  In a Blue Mood.  In a Blue Mood, 25 Sept. 2009.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "Romantic Music."  Essential Humanities.  Essential Humanities, 2008 – 2013.  Web.  19 June 2015.
  • "List of Romantic-Era Composers."  Wikipedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 15 Sept. 2015.  Web.  18 Sept. 2015.
  • Duchen, Jessica.  "Top 20: The World’s Greatest Pianists."  Sinfini Music.  Sinfini Music, 23 April 2014.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • Solomon, Jon.  "The Ten Best Jazz Pianists of All Time."  Westword.  Denver Westword, LLC., 27 Aug. 2013.  18 June 2015.
  • Sturm, Connie Arrau, Debra Brubaker Burs, and Anita Jackson, eds.  "Annotated Bibliography of Sources on the History of Piano Technique and Piano Pedagogy."  Piano Technique.  Piano Technique.Net, n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • Groves Music Online for Music Research.  Oxford Music Online.  Oxford University Press, 2007 – 2015.  Web.  June – December 2015.
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