MUSIC THROUGH THE AGES

Development Of The Piano: A Timeline
Tracing the roots of the piano to the very beginning of consciousness,
when man first became aware of sound.
PEDAGOGY & THEORY
Page 6 of 7 pages

Harold Bauer (1873 – 1951) — English born American Pianist, Violinist, Teacher

  • Originally followed in his father’s footsteps, who was a violinist, Bauer studied the violin under Adolf Pollitzer and his father.
  • He briefly studied piano under Ignacy Jan Paderewski who encouraged him to focus on the piano instead of the violin.
  • In his approach to technique, he felt “one must first imagine the sound, and then find a natural and coordinated motion to produce it;” and “nothing in education was more important than the development of the imagination, without which life would be on horrid grind of monotonous routine.” [ 2 ]
  • Founded the Beethoven Society of New York.
  • President of Friends of Music of the Library of Congress.
  • Head of the piano department of Manhattan School of Music and known for his master classes.

Harold Bauer Playing Piano,
c. 1915 - 1920. [ 1 ]


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Library of Congress.  "Harold Victor Bauer, c. 1915 - 1920."  Photograph.  Original in Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, D.C., part of the George Grantham Bain Collections, Digital ID ggbain 23591LOC.Gov.  Library of Congress, n.d.  Web.  28 Oct. 2015.  No Known Copyright Restrictions.
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"The Power of Bauer."  Academia.  Academia, n.d.  Web.  17 Sept. 2015.

Alfred Cortot (1877 – 1962) — Swiss Born French Classical Pianist, Conductor, Pedagogue – Romantic Period

  • Studied piano at the Paris Conservatoire with Émile Descombes (1829 – 1912) and Louis Diémer (1843 – 1919).
  • Appointed choral coach and then assistant conductor for the Bayreuth Festival.
  • In 1902, founded Société de Festivals Lyriques.
  • Taught at the Paris Conservatoire.
  • Founded and served as director of the Ecole Normale de Musique. Influenced by Chopin’s teaching style, Cortot “developed the groundbreaking methods which enabled them to be passed on to future generations.” [ 2 ]
  • His book Rational Principals of Pianoforte Technique (1928) “divided systematic exercises into five categories: 1) equality, independence and mobility of the fingers; 2) scales-arpeggios; 3) double notes and polyphonic playing; 4) the technique of extensions; 5) wrist technique and execution of chords. The immediate goal of those warm-up exercises is to loosen the playing mechanism, though the pianist can apply those ideas directly into playing the main repertoire.” [ 3 ]
  • Some of his pupils: Dinu Lipatti, Clara Haskil, and Marguerite Monnet.

Portrait of Alfred Cortot. [ 1 ]


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Library of Congress.  "Portrait of Alfred Cortot."  Photograph.  Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, D.C., in the George Grantham Bain Collection, Digital ID ggbain.27618LOC.Gov.  Library of Congress, n.d.  Web.  28 Oct. 2015.  No Known Copyright Restrictions.
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Probert, Simon.  "Alfred Cortot: The Ideal Teacher."  Piano Lessons.  Piano Lessons, 2006 – 2015.  Web.  17 Sept. 2015.
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Wu, Li-Fang.  "The Alfred Cortot Study Edition of Chopin’s Etudes & How the Alexander Technique can Facilitate Progress Towards Performance Through His Suggested Exercises."  LSU.  LSU, Dec. 2010.  Web.  17 Sept. 2015.
Additional References:
  • "Alfred Cortot."  Naxos.  Naxos Digital Services Ltd., n.d.  Web.  17 Sept. 2015.

Wanda Landowska Playing the Harpsichord at a Concert, 1937. [ 1 ]

Wanda Landowska (1879 – 1959) — Polish Virtuoso Pianist, Harpsichordist, Composer

  • Founded Ecole de Musique Ancienne in Saint-Leu-la-Foret, Center for Performance and study of old music, which housed her extensive collection of keyboard instruments, books, and manuscripts.
  • Noted for her revival of the harpsichord and the first person to record Bach’s Goldberg Variations on it.
  • Manuel de Falla & Francis Poulenc wrote works for her.
  • Wrote Music of the Past (Musique Ancienne) (1909), “a pioneering book about the harpsichord and its repertory.” [ 2 ]


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Gregory of nyssa.  "Wanda Landowska Playing the Harpsichord at a concert in Lwów, 1937."  Photograph.  Original in The Illustrated Daily Courier – Archive Illustration, National Digital Archives, Warsaw.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 22 Aug. 2015.  Web.  29 Oct. 2015.  Public Domain
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Thomson, Virgil.  "Wanda Landowska."  The New York Review of Books.  NYREV, Inc., 28 Jan. 1965.  Web.  17 Sept. 2015.
Additional References:
  • "Wanda Landowska."  Naxos.  Naxos Digital Services Ltd., n.d.  Web.  17 Sept. 2015.
  • Kim, Quentin.  "The Legacy of Wanda Landowska."  The Juilliard Journal.  The Juilliard Journal, April 2009.  Web.  17 Sept. 2015.

Portrait of Béla Bartók, 1927. [ 1 ]

Béla Bartók (1881 – 1945) — Hungarian Composer, Pianist, Ethnomusicologist – Late Romantic / Early 20th Century


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KovacsUr.  "Portrait of Béla Bartók, 1927."  Photograph.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 17 Feb. 2006.  Web. 11 Feb. 2016.  Public Domain.

Artur Schnabel (1882 – 1951) — Austrian Pianist, Composer, Teacher – Late Romantic / Early 20th Century Period

  • Initially studied under Hans Schmitt of Vienna Conservatory (now University of Music and Performing Arts, Vienna).
  • Studied under Theodor Leschetizky who told him “You will never be a pianist; you are a musician.” “Schnabel’s recording of the complete Beethoven piano sonatas, the first to be made, is still the benchmark by which all others are compared, and for many it remains the first choice.” [ 2 ]
  • Professor at Hochschule für Musik in Berlin.
  • His writings include Reflections on Music (1933), Music and the Line of Most Resistance (1942), and My Life and Music (1961).

Portrait of Artur Schnabel,
1906. [ 1 ]


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Gergard51.  "Portrait of Artur Schnabel, 1906."  Scan from a Book.  Original in Wilhelm Spemann’s Spemanns Goldenes Buch der Musik: eine Hauskunde feur Jedermann. Berlin & Stuttgart: Verlag von W. Spemann, 1900.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 13 March 2006.  GFDL, and CC BY-SA 3.0.
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"Artur Schnabel."  Naxos.  Naxos Digital Services Ltd., n.d.  Web.  17 Sept. 2015.
Additional References:
  • "Artur Schnabel (1882-1951)."  Schnabel Music Foundation.  Schnabel Music Foundation, n.d.  Web.  17 Sept. 2015.

Hans von Bülow and Franz Liszt begin separate master classes: the former, teaching the works of 9 composers over a period of three years (1884-1887); the later, teaching the works of 59 composers in two years (1884-1886).

Portrait of James Scott. [ 1 ]

James Scott (1885 – 1938) — American Composer, Teacher, Ragtime Pianist – 20th Century Period


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Library of Congress.  "James Scott."  Scan.  Original in Library of Congress, Music Division: Misc. Iconographic Collections, Performing Arts Reading Room.  Memory.LOC.Gov.  Library of Congress, n.d.  Web.  29 Oct. 2015.  No Known Copyright Restrictions.

Drawing of Aaron Copland 
by Richard Hurd, 2013. [ 1 ]

Aaron Copland (1900 – 1990) — American Composer, Pianist, Teacher, Conductor, Music Writer – 20th Century Period


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Hurd, Richard.  "Aaron Copland, Drawing from a Photograph by Richard Hurd."  Photograph.  Flickr.  Flickr, a Yahoo Company, 27 Oct. 2013.  Web.  2 Nov. 2015.  CC BY 2.0.

Hans Schmidt-Isserstedt (1900 – 1973) — German Conductor, Composer – 20th Century Period

  • Received his doctorate from Hochschule für Musik in Berlin where he wrote his dissertation on Mozart’s early operas in which they were Italian inspired.
  • Remarkable orchestral teacher.
  • Supported composers whose music had been banned by the Third Reich.

Hans Schmidt-Isserstedt's 'Back From the Shadows,' Vol. II, 1950. [ 1 ]


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iClassical Com.  "Volume 2 Hans Schmidt-Isserstedt Tahra."  Scan of an Album Cover.  Flickr.  Flickr, a Yahoo Company, 26 April 2015.  Web.  4 Nov. 2015.  CC BY 2.0.
Additional References:
  • Worbs, Hans Christoph.  "Schmidt-Isserstedt, Hans."  Oxford Music Online.  Oxford University Press, 2007 – 2015.  Web.  17 Sept. 2015.
  • Eder, Bruce.  "Hans Schmidt-Isserstedt."  AllMusic.  All Media Network, LLC., n.d.  Web.  17 Sept. 2015.

Mural of Aram Khachaturian  –
Photographed by Yerevantsi . [ 1 ]

Aram Khachaturian (1903 – 1973) — Armenian Composer, Conductor, Teacher – 20th Century Period


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Yerevantsi.  "Mural of Aram Khachaturian’s Portrait, Yerevan, Armenia – Vardanants St."  Photograph.  Commons Wikimedia. Wikimedia Foundations, Inc., 18 Aug. 2015.  Web.  4 Nov. 2015.  CC BY-SA 4.0.
Page 6 of 7 pages

[ CLOSE ]
 

Additional References:
  • Mastehead Image: O’Donnell, Dylan.  "Piano Strings."  Photograph.  Deography.  Dylan O’Donnell, 1 Nov. 2010.  Web.  18 June 2015.  Public Domain.
  • Mandalatrece, Jim Doney.  "History of an Ascended Master, His Connection with Essenes, and The Secrecy of The Kanon."  ThaKanon.  Jim Doney Mandalatrece, n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • Blaise, Gary.  "The Early String Keyboards."  Gary Blaise.  Gary Blaise Early Keyboard Instruments, n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "History of Classical Music."  Naxos.  Naxos Digital Services Ltd., n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "History of the Piano."  Piano Technicians Guild.  Piano Technicians Guild, Inc. n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "Development of the Piano."  Bluebook of Piano.  Bluebook of Pianos, 1933 – 2015.  18 June 2015.
  • Estrella, Steven G.  "Stylistic Timeline of Music History."  Steven Estrella.  Steven G. Estrella, 2013.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "The History of Graphical Music Notation."  Block Museum.  Mary and Leigh Block Museum of Art, n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "The Piano Time Line: A Chronological History."  Concert Pitch Piano.  Concert Pitch Piano Services, 2000 – 2015.  Web.  18 June. 2015.
  • "History of the Piano."  Piano Tuners.  The UK Piano Pages, 1996 – 2015.  Web.  18 June. 2015.
  • Weinstock, Ron.  "A Personal List of Ten Great Blues Pianists."  In a Blue Mood.  In a Blue Mood, 25 Sept. 2009.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "Romantic Music."  Essential Humanities.  Essential Humanities, 2008 – 2013.  Web.  19 June 2015.
  • "List of Romantic-Era Composers."  Wikipedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 15 Sept. 2015.  Web.  18 Sept. 2015.
  • Duchen, Jessica.  "Top 20: The World’s Greatest Pianists."  Sinfini Music.  Sinfini Music, 23 April 2014.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • Solomon, Jon.  "The Ten Best Jazz Pianists of All Time."  Westword.  Denver Westword, LLC., 27 Aug. 2013.  18 June 2015.
  • Sturm, Connie Arrau, Debra Brubaker Burs, and Anita Jackson, eds.  "Annotated Bibliography of Sources on the History of Piano Technique and Piano Pedagogy."  Piano Technique.  Piano Technique.Net, n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • Groves Music Online for Music Research.  Oxford Music Online.  Oxford University Press, 2007 – 2015.  Web.  June – December 2015.
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