MUSIC THROUGH THE AGES

Development Of The Piano: A Timeline
Tracing the roots of the piano to the very beginning of consciousness,
when man first became aware of sound.
PEDAGOGY & THEORY
Page 5 of 7 pages

Carl Tausig (1841 – 1871) — Polish Virtuoso Pianist, Composer, Teacher – Romantic Period

  • Considered one of Liszt’s favorite and greatest pupils.
  • His debut was an orchestral concert conducted by Hans von Bülow in 1858.
  • Known for his great technique and Franz Liszt once said that Tausig had "fingers of steel."
  • Circa 1866, for a brief period, he opened a Schule des Höheren Klavierspiels, a school for advanced piano instruction in Berlin.
  • His work Daily Studies (Tägliche Studien) (1873) about modern technique and finger exercises was published posthumously.

Portrait of Carl Tausig. [ 1 ]


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Tagishsimon.  "Portrait of Carl Tausig."  Scan.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 28 Nov. 2005.  Web.  23 Oct. 2015.  Public Domain. 
Additional References:
  • Fillmore, John Comfort.  Pianoforte Music: Its History.  T. MacCoun, 1884.  Google Books.  Web. 17 Sept. 2014.
  • Singer, Isidore, and Joseph Sohn.  "Tausig, Carl."  Jewish Encyclopedia.  Jewish Encyclopedia, 2002 – 2011.  17 Sept. 2015.
  • Wadlington-Smythe, Jeremy.  "Carl Tausig (1841-1871) Polish Pianist and Composer."  Forte Piano Pianissimo.  Forte Piano Pianissimo, 2009 – 2015.  Web. 17 Sept. 2015.

Portrait of Engelbert Humperdinck from What We Hear in Music by Anne S. Faulkner, 1913. [ 1 ]

Engelbert Humperdinck (1854 – 1921) — German Composer, Teacher – Romantic Period


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Mnd.  "Portrait of Engelbert Humperdinck."  Scan.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 16 Sept. 2005.  Web.  23 Oct. 2015.  Public Domain.

Relief of Leoš Janáček – Photographed by 
Michal Maňas, 2006. [ 1 ]

Leoš Janáček (1854 – 1928) — Czech Composer, Conductor, Teacher – Late Romantic / Early 20th Century


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Maňas, Michal.  "Relief of Leoš Janáček."  Photograph.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, 25 April 2006.  Web.  23 Oct. 2015.  CC BY 3.0.

Tobias Matthay (1858 – 1945) — English Teacher, Author, Pianist, Composer

  • Studied at the Royal Academy of Music with Sir William Sterndale Bennett and Sir Arthur Sullivan.
  • Founded the Tobias Matthay Pianoforte School.
  • Some of his pupils: Dame Myra Hess, Irene Scharrer, Clifford Curzon.
  • His first book The Act of Touch in All its Diversity: An analysis and Synthesis of Pianoforte Tone Production (1903) influenced piano pedagogy.

Tobias Matthay Plaque. [ 1 ]


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Spudgun67.  "Tobias Matthay 1858-1945 Teacher and Pianist Lived Here."  Photograph.  Flickr.  Flickr, a Yahoo Company, 27 Dec. 2014.  Web.  27 Oct. 2015.  CC BY 2.0.
Additional References:
  • Siek, Stephen.  "Tobias Matthay (1858-1945)."  Piano Sage.  Piano Sage, 2011.  Web. 17 Sept. 2015.

Portrait of Ignacy Jan Paderewski by Lawrence Sir Alma-Tadema, 1890. [ 1 ]

Ignacy Jan Paderewski (1860 – 1941) — Polish Pianist, Composer, Prime Minister of Poland

  • Studied at the Warsaw Conservatory of Music.
  • On the advice of his friend Anton Rubinstein (who urged Paderewski to further dedicate his studies on the piano), he became a student of Student of Theodor Leschtizky.
  • His piano career spanned over 50 years.
  • While on various tours in America, he gives many benefit performances one of which is at Madison Square Garden to help raise funds for unemployed American musicians.
  • Paderewski Festival in Paso Robles named after him.


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Alma-Tadema, Lawrence Sir.  Portrait of Ignacy Jan Paderewski.  1890.   National Museum, Warsaw.  Flickr.  Flickr, a Yahoo Company, 30 May 2007.  Web.  27 Oct. 2015.  Public Domain.
Additional References:
  • "Ignacy Jan Paderewski 1860 – 1941."  Paderewski Fest.  Paderewski Festival, n.d.  Web. 17 Sept. 2015.
  • Gessner, Teresa.  "Patriot, Composer, Piano Virtuoso, Philanthropist, Statesman."  Info-Poland.  Polish Academic Information Center, University at Buffalo, 2000.  Web.  17 Sept. 2015.
  • "Ignacy Jan Paderewski."  The Paderewski Association.  The Paderewski Association, 2006 – 2014.  Web.  17 Sept 2015.

Frances Elliott Clark (1860 – 1958) — American Music Educator

  • Taught in Indiana, Illinois, and Iowa public schools.
  • Supervisor of music in Milwaukee.
  • As a “pioneer of using recordings in the classroom,” [ 2 ] she enabled the ability to teach listening in school.
  • When she was head of Educational Division of Victor Talking Machine Company, she wrote Music Appreciation for Children (1939) and other articles, materials, and recordings for public schools.

Frontispiece and Title Page from 'Music Appreciation for Little Children' Written by Frances Elliott Clark, 1920. [ 1 ]


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Victor Talking Machine Company; Frances Elliott Clark, and uploaded by WhitneyYoung.  Music Appreciation for Little Children.  Camden: Victor Talking machine Company, 1920: pg. 11.  Internet Archive.  Web.  27 Oct. 2015.  No Known Copyright Restrictions.
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Heller, George N., and William R. Lee.  "Clark [née Elliott], Frances (Mary)."  Oxford Music Online.  Oxford University Press, 2007 – 2015.  Web.  17 Sept. 2015.
Additional References:
  • Mark, Michael, L., ed.  Music Education: Source Readings from Ancient Greece to Today.  Third Edition.  New York: Routledge, 2008.  Google Books.  Web. 17 Sept. 2014.

Arthur Whiting (1861 – 1936) — American Pianist, Composer, Teacher – Neo-Classicist

  • Studied at the New England Conservatory.
  • Studied in Germany at the Munich Conservatory (1883 -1885).
  • In 1907 he taught an educational series of chamber music known as Expositions at Harvard, Yale and Princeton Universities.
  • In 1909 he published The Lesson of the Clavichord in New Music Review writing “the reproduction of the Clavichord and Harpsichord is as important to the present-day students of keyboard music as are some recent discoveries of the antique to archaeologists.” [ 2 ]

Portrait of Arthur Whiting from Louis C. Elsen's, The History of American Music, 1904. [ 1 ]


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Library of Congress.  "Portrait of Arthur Whiting."  Photograph.  Original from Louis C. Elsen, The History of American Music.  New York: The Macmillan Company, 1904: pg. 212, fig. 60. Music Division. Library of Congress. Call number:ML200.E46.  LOC.Gov.  Library of Congress, n.d.  Web.  27 Oct. 2015.  No Known Copyright Restrictions.
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Haskell, Harry.   The Early Music Revival, A History.  Mineola: Dover Publications, Inc. 1996.  Google Books.  Web. 17 Sept. 2014.
Additional References:
  • "Arthur B. Whiting (1861-1936) [biography]."  The Library of Congress.  The Library of Congress, 12 Oct. 2014.  Web.  17 Sept. 2015.

Isidore Philippe (1863 – 1958) — Hungarian born French Pianist, Composer, Editor, Pedagogue

  • Pupil of Georges Mathias, Camille Saint-Saëns, and Stephen Heller at the Conservatoire de Paris.
  • Taught at the Conservatoire National de Musique de Paris and the American Conservatory of Fontainbleau.
  • Some of his pupils: Aaron Copland, Albert Schweitzer, Soulima Stravinsky.
  • Among his voluminous writings (over 100) on technical exercises was Exrecises Pratiques (1897), Exercises for the Independence of Fingers (1898), Etudes Techniques (1904), and Complete School of Technique (1908).

Portrait of Isidore Philippe 
by Louis Fréon, c. 1908/1910. [ 1 ]


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Charvex.  "Portrait of Isidore Philippe, photographed by Louis Fréon, c. 1908/1910."  Photograph.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 2 July 2008.  Web.  27 Oct. 2015.  Public Domain.
Additional References:
  • Wadlington-Smythe, Jeremy.  "Isidor Philipp Hungarian-Born French Pianist (1863 – 1958)."  Forte Piano Pianissimo.  Forte Piano Pianissimo, 2009 – 2015.  Web. 17 Sept. 2015.
  • Timbrell, Charles.  "Philipp, Isidore [Isidor]."  Oxford Music Online.  Oxford University Press, 2007 – 2015.  Web.  17 Sept. 2015.

Portrait of Eugene d’Albert, 1890. [ 1 ]

Eugen d’Albert (1864 – 1932) — Scottish born German Pianist, Composer – Post-Romantic Period

  • His father, Charles Louis Napoléon d’Albert (1809 – 1886) was an orchestra leader, dancer and pianist and gave his son early musical training.
  • At a young age, he studied at National Training School for Music (now known as Royal College of Music) in London under Sir Arthur Sullivan and Ernst Pauer.
  • In 1881 he won the Mendelssohn Scholarship and studied in Vienna.
  • He then traveled to Weimar to continue his studies under Franz Liszt.
  • In 1907 he became director of Hochschule für Musik in Berlin, during his tenure d’Albert influenced music education in Germany.


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Library of Congress.  "Portrait of Eugene d’Albert, 1890."  Photograph.  Original in Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington D.C., Digital ID cph 3c13622LOC.Gov.  Library of Congress, n.d.  Web.  28 Oct. 2015.  No Known Copyright Restrictions.
Additional References:
  • Lewis, Uncle Dave.  "Eugen d’Albert."  AllMusic.  All Media Network, LLC., n.d.  Web.  17 Sept. 2015.
  • Northbritain.  "Eugen d’Albert."  Scottish Composers.  Scottish Composers, 28       Aug. 2013.  Web.  17 Sept. 2015.

Portrait of Ferruccio Busoni, c. 1890 - 1900. [ 1 ]

Ferruccio Busoni (1866 – 1924) — Italian born (Worked primarily in Germany) Composer, Virtuoso Pianist, Writer, Teacher, Conductor

  • He came from a musical family.
  • He taught in Russia, America and Germany.
  • A champion for contemporary music.
  • A Prolific writer, among his works is Sketch of a New Aesthetic of Music (Entwurf einer neuen Ästhetik) (1907) about musical freedom from conventional music; considered a “seminal work amongst music theorists” [ 2 ].
  • Some of his pupils: Edgard Varese, Kurt Weill, Stephen Wolpe.


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Library of Congress.  "Portrait of Ferruccio Busoni, c. 1890 - 1900."  Photograph.  Original in Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington D.C., part of the George Grantham Bain Collection, Digital ID cph 3c26592LOC.Gov.  Library of Congress, n.d.  Web.  11 Feb. 2016.  No Known Copyright Restrictions.
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Jewell, Bobby, and Wayne Daly.  "Ferruccio Busoni: Sketch of a New Aesthetic of Music."  AA Conversations.  AA Conversations, 5 Feb. 2013.  Web.  17 Sept. 2015.
Additional References:
  • "Busoni."  Rouge’s Foam.  Rouge’s Foam, 17 Sept. 2012.  Web.  17 Sept. 2015.
  • Beaumont, Antony.  "Busoni, Ferruccio (Dante Michelangelo Ben venuto)."  Oxford Music Online.  Oxford University Press, 2007 – 2015.  Web.  17 Sept. 2015.
Page 5 of 7 pages

[ CLOSE ]
 

Additional References:
  • Mastehead Image: O’Donnell, Dylan.  "Piano Strings."  Photograph.  Deography.  Dylan O’Donnell, 1 Nov. 2010.  Web.  18 June 2015.  Public Domain.
  • Mandalatrece, Jim Doney.  "History of an Ascended Master, His Connection with Essenes, and The Secrecy of The Kanon."  ThaKanon.  Jim Doney Mandalatrece, n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • Blaise, Gary.  "The Early String Keyboards."  Gary Blaise.  Gary Blaise Early Keyboard Instruments, n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "History of Classical Music."  Naxos.  Naxos Digital Services Ltd., n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "History of the Piano."  Piano Technicians Guild.  Piano Technicians Guild, Inc. n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "Development of the Piano."  Bluebook of Piano.  Bluebook of Pianos, 1933 – 2015.  18 June 2015.
  • Estrella, Steven G.  "Stylistic Timeline of Music History."  Steven Estrella.  Steven G. Estrella, 2013.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "The History of Graphical Music Notation."  Block Museum.  Mary and Leigh Block Museum of Art, n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "The Piano Time Line: A Chronological History."  Concert Pitch Piano.  Concert Pitch Piano Services, 2000 – 2015.  Web.  18 June. 2015.
  • "History of the Piano."  Piano Tuners.  The UK Piano Pages, 1996 – 2015.  Web.  18 June. 2015.
  • Weinstock, Ron.  "A Personal List of Ten Great Blues Pianists."  In a Blue Mood.  In a Blue Mood, 25 Sept. 2009.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "Romantic Music."  Essential Humanities.  Essential Humanities, 2008 – 2013.  Web.  19 June 2015.
  • "List of Romantic-Era Composers."  Wikipedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 15 Sept. 2015.  Web.  18 Sept. 2015.
  • Duchen, Jessica.  "Top 20: The World’s Greatest Pianists."  Sinfini Music.  Sinfini Music, 23 April 2014.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • Solomon, Jon.  "The Ten Best Jazz Pianists of All Time."  Westword.  Denver Westword, LLC., 27 Aug. 2013.  18 June 2015.
  • Sturm, Connie Arrau, Debra Brubaker Burs, and Anita Jackson, eds.  "Annotated Bibliography of Sources on the History of Piano Technique and Piano Pedagogy."  Piano Technique.  Piano Technique.Net, n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • Groves Music Online for Music Research.  Oxford Music Online.  Oxford University Press, 2007 – 2015.  Web.  June – December 2015.
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