MUSIC THROUGH THE AGES

Development Of The Piano: A Timeline
Tracing the roots of the piano to the very beginning of consciousness,
when man first became aware of sound.
PEDAGOGY & THEORY
Page 3 of 7 pages

Ignaz Moscheles (1794 – 1870) — Prague Born Pianist, Conductor, Composer, Teacher – Late Classical / Early Romantic Period

  • Studied piano at a young age and was taught by B. D. Weber, director of the Prague Conservatory from 1804 - 1808.
  • In 1808, moved to Vienna to be more connected to his musical idol Beethoven, as he felt: “Beethoven is great—whom should I call greater?”  There, studied under Johann Georg Albrechtsberger (1736 – 1809) and Antonio Salieri (1750 – 1825).
  • Circa 1814, Beethoven asked him to create the piano arrangement for his opera Fidelio.
  • Became conductor and eventually co-director of the Royal Philharmonic Society.
  • “Teaching was a central part of Moscheles’ career from his early years in Vienna until his death in Leipzig in 1870. The list of Moscheles’ students […] is long and impressive. For example, Moscheles calculated that in just one year, 1835, he had given in London ‘1457 lessons, of which 1328 were paid, and 129 gratis.’ If one […] extrapolates this to a teaching career of fifty years, the numbers are truly staggering.” [ 2 ]
  • Taught at the London Royal Academy of Music and Leipzig Conservatory, as well as private lessons and other cities.
  • Some of his pupils: Camille Pleyel, Sigismond Thalberg, and Felix Mendelssohn.
  • In his work Method of Methods (Méthode des Méthodes) (1839/1840) co-written with Francis Joseph Fétis, Moscheles articulates on piano technique, music theory and “a wide sampling of views, opinions and approaches to the piano and its literature from most of the major teachers of the era.” [ 3 ]

Portrait of Ignaz Moscheles by Godefroy Engelmann and Pierre Roch Vigneron, c. 1820 – 1840. [ 1 ]


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Mu.  "Portrait of Ignaz Moscheles by Godefroy Engelmann and Pierre Roch Vigneron, c. 1820 – 1840."  Scan.  Located in the New York Public Library’s Digital Gallery, New York.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 1 March 2011.  Web.  9 Oct. 2015.  Public Domain. 
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Kroll, Mark.  Ignaz Moscheles and the Changing World of Musical Europe.  Woodbridge: The Boydell Press, 2014: pg. 166.  Google Books.  Web.  16 Sept. 2015.
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Kroll, Mark.  Ignaz Moscheles and the Changing World of Musical Europe.  Woodbridge: The Boydell Press, 2014: pg. 192.  Google Books.  Web.  16 Sept. 2015.
Additional References:
  • Chambers, Jr., Robert W.  "Ignaz Moscheles (1794-1870)."  Moscheles.  Moscheles, 2004.  Web.  16 Sept. 2016.

Adolf Bernhard Marx (1795 – 1866) — German Music Theorist, Critic, Pedagogue

  • Considered “one of the most influential theorist[s] of the 19th century, Marx named and codified sonata form.” [ 2 ]
  • Editor of Berliner Allgemeine Musikalische Zeitung.
  • Professor musicology at the University of Berlin and then later director of music.
  • Among his many writings, his most famous was Die Lehre von der Musikalischen Komposition (1837/1838, 1845 and 1847).
  • Co-founded what is now known as Stern Conservatory with Theodor Kullak and Julius Stern.

Lithograph of A. B. Marx,
19th Century. [ 1 ]


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Music Division, The New York Public Library.  "Lithograph of A. B. Marx, 19th C."  The New York Public Library Digital Collections.  The New York Public Library, n.d.  Web.  16 Oct. 2015.  Public Domain.
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Pederson, Sanna.  "Marx, (Friedrich Heinrich) Adolf Bernhard [Samuel Moses]."  Oxford Music Online.  Oxford University Press, 2007 – 2015.  Web.  16 Sept. 2015.

Henri Bertini (1798 – 1876) — London Born French Pianist, Composer – Classical Period

  • Born into a family of musicians, his brother (who was himself a student of Muzio Clementi) was his primary teacher.
  • Though considered a virtuoso pianist with some success, he is best remembered for his piano studies in technique.  Among the 20 books comprising 500 études, Le Rudiment de Pianiste and Methode de Piano Elementaire et Facile are the most famous

Portrait of Henri Bertini by Marie Alexandre Adolphe, c. 1850. [ 1 ]


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Alophe, Marie-Alexandre, and uploaded by Charvex.  "Portrait of Henri Bertini by Marie Alexandre Adolphe, c. 1850."  Scan.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 28 Dec. 2007.  Web.  9 Oct. 2015.  Public Domain. 
Additional References:
  • Johnson, Keith.  "Henri Bertini."  AllMusic.  All Media Network, LLC., n.d.  Web.  16 Sept. 2016.
  • "Henri Bertini: 1798 – 1876 Piano Virtuoso, Music Composer."  Google Translate.  n.p., n.d.  Web.  16 Sept. 2015.

Henri Herz (1803 – 1888) — Austrian Pianist, Composer, Teacher, Piano Manufacturer

  • A prodigy from a musical family, Herz studied piano with his father and the organist Daniel Hünten.
  • In 1816, he attended the Paris Conservatoire (later teaching there) and studied with Louis-Barthélémy Pradher, Victor Dourlen, and Antonín Reicha.
  • Asked by Franz Liszt to compose a variation to Hexaméron; other contributors were Frédéric Chopin, Carl Czerny, Johann Peter Pixis, and Sigismond Thalberg.
  • Along with his brother Jacques Simon Herz (1794 – 1880), he founded the École Spéciale de Piano de Paris.
  • As a pedagogue, he is known for his finger exercises.
  • Partnering in a piano-manufacturing firm, he established his own piano factory in 1851 and produced pianos that were considered equal to Érard and Pleyel.  His piano was awarded first prize in 1855 at the Paris Exposition.
  • In 1836, he built a concert hall.

Portrait of Henri Herz by Achillle Devéria, 1832. [ 1 ]


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Mu.  "Portrait of Henri Herz, drawn by Achillle Devéria, 1832."  Scan of a Drawing.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 8 March 2009.  Web.  9 Oct. 2015.  Public Domain. 
Additional References:
  • Lindeman, Stephen D.  "Herz, Henri [Heinrich]."  Oxford Music Online.  Oxford University Press, 2007 – 2015.  Web.  16 Sept. 2015.
  • Johnson, Keith.  "Henri Herz."  AllMusic.  All Media Network, LLC., n.d.  Web.  16 Sept. 2015.

Louis Plaidy (1810 – 1874) — German Piano Pedagogue

  • Taught Hans von Bülow.
  • Considered a master of technique and touch.
  • Wrote Technical Studies for the Piano (Technische Studien für das Pianofortespiel) (1903) and The Pianoforte Teacher’s Guide (1882), and was the first to publish a book only on technical studies.

Portrait of Louis Plaidy by August Brasch, c. 1860s. [ 1 ]


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Brasch, August.  Portrait Louis Plaidy.  c. 1860s.  Library of the Johann Wolfgang Goethe, University of Frankfurt in the Portrait Collection of Friedrich Nicolas Manskopf, Frankfurt.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 8 Oct. 2009.  Web.  9 Oct. 2015.  Public Domain. 

Portrait of Franz Liszt, 1885. [ 1 ]

Franz Liszt (1811 – 1886) — Hungarian Composer, Pianist, Teacher – Romantic Period


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Lindadesign.  "Portrait of Franz Liszt, 1885."  Photograph.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 29 April 2010.  Web.  16 Sept. 2015.  Public Domain.

Camille-Marie Stamaty (1811 – 1870) — Italian born French Pianist, Composer, Teacher – Romantic Period

  • Studied under Friedrich Kalkbrenner and for a short time under Felix Mendelssohn.
  • As a teacher, followed in the tradition of Kalkbrenner. His 25 Etüdes Pour Piano Op. 11 became official teaching materials for Conservatoire. His other work Rhythmic Training for the Fingers Op. 36 (Etüdes des Doigts Op.36) is still in print.
  • He taught Moreau Gottschalk and Camille Saint-Saëns.

Portrait of Camille Stamaty
by Alphonse-Léon Noël, 1819. [ 1 ]


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Noël, Alphonse-Léon.  Portrait of Camille Stamaty.  1807.  Musée National du Château de Compiègne.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 20 March 2013.  Web.  9 Oct. 2015.  Public Domain. 

Sigismond Thalberg (1812 – 1871) — Pianist, Composer – Romantic Period

  • A pupil of Mittag, Simon Sechter, Johann Nepomuk Hummel, J.P. Pixis, Kalkbrenner, and Ignaz Moscheles.
  • Considered an important virtuoso pianist of the 19th century, rivaling Franz Liszt.
  • Developed a “three-handed technique” using his thumbs that gave the impression that three hands were playing. “He not only possessed the mastery of touch in a transcendent degree and excelled in sostenuto playing by the use of the pedal, but actually discovered a method of making two hands produce the triple effect of melody, accompaniment, and bass on one keyboard.” [ 2 ]
  • In his work The Art of Song Applied to the Piano (L’art du Chant Appliqué au Piano, Op.70) (1853/1854), Thalberg’s “method comprises twenty-five transcriptions of vocal works by other composers, primarily operatic material. Each piece usually included Thalberg’s own introductory comment, consisting of some remarks and instructions based on a set of rules.” [ 3 ]

Portrait of Sigismund Thalberg – Lithograph by Joseph Kriehuber, Photographed by Peter Geymayer, 1841. [ 1 ]


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Kriehuber, Joseph, lithographer, and Peter Geymayer, photographer.  Portrait of Sigismund Thalberg.  1841.  Photograph.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 6 Jan. 2007.  Web.  9 Oct. 2015.  Public Domain. 
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"Sigismond Thalberg."  New Advent.  Kevin Knight, 2012.  Web.  16 Sept. 2015.
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Jovell, Patrick.  "Sigismond Thalberg’s 200th Anniversary."  Piano Street.  Op 111 Productions, 2001 – 2013.  Web. 16 Sept. 2015.
Additional References:
  • Wangermée, Robert.  "Thalberg, Sigismond (Fortuné François)."  Oxford Music Online.  Oxford University Press, 2007 – 2015.  Web.  16 Sept. 2015.
  • Gailey, Meredith.  "Sigismund Thalberg."  AllMusic.  All Media Netwrok, LLC., n.d.  Web.  16 Sept. 2015.

Signed Portrait
of Adolf von Henselt
. [ 1 ]

Adolf von Henselt (1814 – 1889) — German Pianist, Composer, Teacher

  • Prior to the piano, Henselt studied violin.
  • He was a pupil of Abbé Vogler (1749 – 1814), Johann Nepomuk Hummel, and Simon Sechter (1788 – 1867).
  • Practiced for ten hours a day.
  • Developed a technique to extend the reach of his hands (which led to his now famous legato), giving him more control over the keyboard without using the sustaining pedal.
  • Retired from performance due to stage fright.
  • Most of his works composed by his 30’s.
  • He became a great teacher in St. Petersburg, influencing many Russian pianists. Some of his pupils: Nikolay Zverev (who taught Sergei Rachmaninov), Nikolay Ber, and Ingeborg Stark.


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File Upload Bot.  "Signed Portrait of Adolf von Henselt."  Scan.  Located in the New York Public Library Digital Gallery, New York.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 2 Dec. 2009.  Web.  12 Oct. 2015.  Public Domain. 
Additional References:
  • Davis, Beattie.  "Adolf von Henselt (1814 – 1889)."  Henselt Society.  Gillian Davis, 2013.  Web. 16 Sept. 2015.
  • "Adolf von Henselt."  Saint Petersburg.  Saint-Petersburg.Com, 2001 – 2015.  Web. 16 Sept. 2015.
  • Stevenson, Joseph.  "Adolf Henselt."  AllMusic.  All Media Network, LLC., n.d.  Web.  16 Sept. 2015.

Theodor Kullak (1818 – 1882) — Polish Pianist, Teacher – Romantic Period (Brother of Adolph Kullak)

  • Pupil of Czerny, Nicolai, and Simon Sechter.
  • Founded along with Julius Stern and Adolf Bernhard Marx, Tonkünstler-Verein, a conservatory for music education in Berlin. (Due to differences, Kullak resigned and it became the Stern Conservatory 1855, with Hans von Bülow succeeding him).
  • After leaving Stern, he founded Neue Akademie der Tonkunst primarily for pianists. Also known as ‘Kullak’s Academy.’
  • Considered one of the greatest pedagogues in 19th century.
  • Wrote Octave‐school or School of Octave Playing (Die Schule des Oktavenspiels) (1848).
  • Some of his pupils: Moritz Moszkowski, Nikolai Rubinstein, and Xaver Scharwenka.

Portrait of Theodor Kullak,
c. 1892. [ 1 ]


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Андрей Романенко.  "Portrait of Theodor Kullak, c. 1892."  Scan of a Drawing.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 3 Sept. 2010.  Web.  12 Oct. 2015.  Public Domain. 
Additional References:
  • "Kullak: (1) Theodor Kullak."  Oxford Music Online.  Oxford University Press, 2007 – 2015.  Web.  16 Sept. 2015.
  • Palmieri, Robert, ed.  The Piano: An Encyclopedia.  2nd Edition.  New York: Routledge, June 1, 2004.  Google Books.  Web. 14 Sept. 2015.
  • Lane, Piers.  "Theodor Kullak."  Hyperion Records.  Hyperion Records Limited, 1999.  Web.  16 Sept. 2015.
Page 3 of 7 pages

[ CLOSE ]
 

Additional References:
  • Mastehead Image: O’Donnell, Dylan.  "Piano Strings."  Photograph.  Deography.  Dylan O’Donnell, 1 Nov. 2010.  Web.  18 June 2015.  Public Domain.
  • Mandalatrece, Jim Doney.  "History of an Ascended Master, His Connection with Essenes, and The Secrecy of The Kanon."  ThaKanon.  Jim Doney Mandalatrece, n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • Blaise, Gary.  "The Early String Keyboards."  Gary Blaise.  Gary Blaise Early Keyboard Instruments, n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "History of Classical Music."  Naxos.  Naxos Digital Services Ltd., n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "History of the Piano."  Piano Technicians Guild.  Piano Technicians Guild, Inc. n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "Development of the Piano."  Bluebook of Piano.  Bluebook of Pianos, 1933 – 2015.  18 June 2015.
  • Estrella, Steven G.  "Stylistic Timeline of Music History."  Steven Estrella.  Steven G. Estrella, 2013.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "The History of Graphical Music Notation."  Block Museum.  Mary and Leigh Block Museum of Art, n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "The Piano Time Line: A Chronological History."  Concert Pitch Piano.  Concert Pitch Piano Services, 2000 – 2015.  Web.  18 June. 2015.
  • "History of the Piano."  Piano Tuners.  The UK Piano Pages, 1996 – 2015.  Web.  18 June. 2015.
  • Weinstock, Ron.  "A Personal List of Ten Great Blues Pianists."  In a Blue Mood.  In a Blue Mood, 25 Sept. 2009.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "Romantic Music."  Essential Humanities.  Essential Humanities, 2008 – 2013.  Web.  19 June 2015.
  • "List of Romantic-Era Composers."  Wikipedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 15 Sept. 2015.  Web.  18 Sept. 2015.
  • Duchen, Jessica.  "Top 20: The World’s Greatest Pianists."  Sinfini Music.  Sinfini Music, 23 April 2014.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • Solomon, Jon.  "The Ten Best Jazz Pianists of All Time."  Westword.  Denver Westword, LLC., 27 Aug. 2013.  18 June 2015.
  • Sturm, Connie Arrau, Debra Brubaker Burs, and Anita Jackson, eds.  "Annotated Bibliography of Sources on the History of Piano Technique and Piano Pedagogy."  Piano Technique.  Piano Technique.Net, n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • Groves Music Online for Music Research.  Oxford Music Online.  Oxford University Press, 2007 – 2015.  Web.  June – December 2015.
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