MUSIC THROUGH THE AGES

Development Of The Piano: A Timeline
Tracing the roots of the piano to the very beginning of consciousness,
when man first became aware of sound.
PEDAGOGY & THEORY
Page 2 of 7 pages

Daniel Gottlob Türk (1750 – 1813) — German Theorist, Composer, Organist, Professor – Classical Period

  • Director of music at Halle University where he also taught music theory and composition.
  • Organist and musical director of the Marktkirche.
  • Among his many writings is School of Clavier Playing (Klavierschule) (1789), a theoretical treatise is “…one of the most important sources for keyboard performance practice of the late 18th century.” [ 1 ]


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"Daniel Gottlob Turk (1750-1813)."  Naxos.  Naxos Digital Services Ltd., n.d.  Web.  15 Sept. 2015.
Additional References:
  • Grave, Floyd K.  "School of Clavier Playing by Daniel Gottlob Türk, Translation and Notes by Raymond H. Haggh."  Notes.  Second Series Vol. 40, No.4.  June 1984.  JSTOR.  Web.  15 Sept. 2015.
  • Jacobi, Erwin R.  "Türk, Daniel Gottlob."  Oxford Music Online.  Oxford University Press, 2007 – 2015.  Web.  15 Sept. 2015.

Johann Peter Milchmeyer (1750 – 1813) — German Pedagogue of Harp and Keyboard Instruments

  • His work The True Art of Playing the Pianoforte (Die Wahre Art Das Pianoforte Zu Spielen) (1797), considered among the first discourse dedicated solely to piano playing and “was specifically conceived as a self-instruction manual for the growing number of amateurs who wished to play fashionable piano. Selling more than 530 copies, the book was an immediate and striking success.” [ 1 ]
  • His work is of historic value as it illustrates early pianoforte technique.
  • Served as the Dresden Court Musician.


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Skowroneck, Tilman.  Beethoven the Pianist.  New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010.  Google Books.  Web. 15 Sept. 2014.
Additional References:
  • Rosenblum, Sandra P.  Performance Practices in Classic Piano Music: Their Principals and Applications.  Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1988.  Google Books.  Web. 15 Sept. 2015.
  • Da Costa, Neal Peres.  Off the Record: Performing Practices in Romantic Piano Playing.  New York: Oxford University Press, USA, 2012.  Google Books.  15 Sept. 2015.

Muzio Clementi – Photographic Reproduction of a Painting by Sopus Williams. [ 1 ]

Muzio Clementi (1752–1832) — Italian born English Composer, Keyboard Player, Teacher, Music Publisher, Piano Manufacturer – Classical Period

  • Popularized the pianoforte.
  • His two works Introduction to the Art of Playing on the Piano Forte, Op. 42 and Op.43 (1801) and Gradus ad Parnassum (1817) “became staples in the education of pianists at all levels.” [ 2 ]
  • Teacher of Cramer and John Field, who influenced Chopin.


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TommyG.  "Photographic Reproduction Portrait of  Muzio Clementi painted by Sopus Williams."  Photograph.  Original in the Bergen Public Library, Norway.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 8 Sept. 2014.  Web.  21 Sept. 2015.  Public Domain. 
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Plantinga, Leon.  "Clementi, Muzio [Clementi, Mutius Philippus Vincentius Franciscus Zaverius]."  Oxford Music Online.  Oxford University Press, 2007 – 2015.  Web.  15 Sept. 2015.
Additional References:
  • "Introduction to the Art of Playing the Pianoforte, Op. 42."  Musopen.  Musopen, n.d.  Web.  15 Sept. 2015. 
  • Eskenazi, Jeremy.  "Muzio Clementi (1752-1832): Life and Work."  Clementi Society.  Jeremy Eskenazi, 2008.  Web.  15 Sept. 2015.

Carl Friedrich Cramer (1752 – 1807) — German born English Linguist, Publisher, Composer, Writer

  • He wrote and edited a periodical called Magazin der Musik (1783 – 1786/7), which changed its name to Musik in 1789: comprised of music criticism, essays, publications, and concert programs.

Portrait of Johann Baptist Cramer by William Sharp, 19th Century. [ 1 ]

Johann Baptist Cramer (1771 – 1858) — German Composer, Pianist, Publisher

  • Was a pupil of Clementi.
  • He owned an instrument manufacturing and music publishing firm named J.B. Cramer & Co.
  • His most famous work is Studies for the Piano (Studio per il pianoforte) (1804 and 1810), “considered a cornerstone of pianistic technique.” [ 2 ]


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Sharp, William, and uploaded by Mu.  Portrait of Johann Baptist Cramer.  19th C. Joseph Muller Collection of Music and Other Portraits, New York Public library, New York.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 29 Jan. 2011.  Web.  21 Sept. 2015.  Public Domain. 
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Graue, Jerald C., and Thomas Milligan.  "Cramer: (2) Johann Baptist Cramer."  Oxford Music Online.  Oxford University Press, 2007 – 2015.  Web.  14 Sept. 2015.

Johann Nepomuk Hummel (1778 – 1837) —Pressburg born Austrian Pianist Prodigy, Composer, Teacher, Conductor – Classical

  • Student of Mozart, Haydn & probably Clementi.
  • Considered a rival of Beethoven’s.
  • “What kind of teacher was Hummel? They found a kind and caring teacher who could guide them through every aspect of piano performance with thoroughness, clarity, and experience. Moreover, they found in Hummel a future mentor and loyal friend.  In other words, they got Hummel the artist and the man.” [ 2 ]
  • His piano methods are published in the three volume work A Complete Theoretical and Practical Course of Instruction on the Art of Playing Pianoforte, From the First Elementary Instruction on to a Complete Education (Ausführliche theoretisch-practische Anweisung zum Piano-Forte-Spiel, vom ersten Elementar-Unterrichte an, bis zur vollkommensten Ausbildung.) (1828). Comprised of 2000 exercises with advice for parents and teachers as well as posture, position, note reading, finger exercises, and style, theory, “it remains one of the most important sources of information about the late Viennese style of performing…” and is considered a “pianistic bible for generations.” [ 3 ]
  • As a teacher he was concerned with voice, texture and fingering, and used his own compositions for instruction.
  • Some of his pupils: Ferdinand Hiller (1811 – 1885), Julius Benedict, and Eugénie Beer.
  • Influenced Chopin and Mendelssohn.

Portrait of Johann Nepomuk Hummel. [ 1 ]


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Kjetil.  "Portrait of Johann Nepomuk Hummel (Bratislava, 1778 - Weimar, 1837) Austrian composer and pianist, Engraving."  Engraving.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 6 Feb. 2006.  Web.  21 Sept. 2015.  Public Domain. 
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Kroll, Mark.  Nepomuk Hummel: A Musician’s Life and World.  Lanham: The Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group, Inc., 2007: pg. 248.  Google Books.  Web. 15 Sept. 2015.
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Sachs, Joel, and Mark Kroll.  "Hummel, Johann Nepomuk."  Oxford Music Online.  Oxford University Press, 2007 – 2015.  Web.  14 Sept. 2015.
Additional References:
  • Dubal, David.  The Art of the Piano: Its Performers, Literature, and Recordings.  Revised and Expanded Edition.  New Jersey: Amadeus Press, LLC, 2004.  Google Books.  Web.  15 Sept. 2015.
  • "The Hummel Project."  J.N. Hummel.  Orpheus & Bacchus, 2009.  Web.  15 Sept. 2015.

Portrait of Friedrich Wieck at the Age of 45. [ 1 ]

Friedrich Wieck (1785 – 1873) — German Piano Teacher, Writer – Classical Period

  • Among his writings are Piano and Song (Clavier und Gesang; Didaktisches und Polemisches) (1853), which focuses on elementary teaching, and Piano and Song How to Teach, How to Learn and How to Form a Judgment of Musical Performances.
  • He taught Robert Schumann, Hans von Bülow, and his daughter Clara Schumann.


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Deschreiber.  "Painting Portrait of Friedrich Wieck at age 45."  Photograph.  Original in Robert-Schumann-Haus Zwickau, Germany.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 25 Sept. 2011.  Web.  21 Sept. 2015.  Public Domain. 

Friedrich Kalkbrenner (1785 – 1849) — German born French Pianist, Composer, Teacher, Piano Manufacturer – Classical Period.

  • Studied at the Paris Conservatoire.
  • Wrote Méthode pour Apprendre le Piano à l'aide du Guide-Mains Op. 108 (1831) which included the use of the chiroplast or hand guide, (invented by Johan Bernhard Logier), to aid with hand positioning, it came to be known as “Kalkbrenner’s Technique.”
  • Partner in Pleyel’s Fortepiano Factory.
  • Head of French Pianoforte School.
  • Taught Camille-Marie Stamaty (whose own pupils were Moreau Gottschalk and Camille Saint-Saëns), Arabella Goddard and Marie-Felicite-Denise Pleyel.

Portrait Detail of Friedrich Kalkbrenner by Auguste Bry, Original Drawing by Alphonse Farcy. [ 1 ]


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Lieberknecht, Otfried.  "Portrait detail of Friedrich Kalkbrenner by Auguste Bry, original drawing by Alphonse Farcy."  Scan.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 8 May 2006.  Web.  9 Oct. 2015.  Public Domain. 
Additional References:
  • Dekeyser, Paul.  "Kalkbrenner, Frédéric [Friedrich Wilhelm Michael]."  Oxford Music Online.  Oxford University Press, 2007 – 2015.  Web.  14 Sept. 2015.
  • "Friedrich Kalkbrenner."  Palace Pianos.  Palace Pianos, 2008 – 2015.  Web.  15 Sept. 2015.

Carl Czerny (1791 – 1857) — Austrian Piano Teacher, Composer, Pianist, Theorist, Historian – Classical Period

  • Taught by Beethoven and Hummel.
  • Absorbed some of Clementi’s teaching methods as his own.
  • Noted for his piano technical exercises.
  • Among his many technical works are School of Velocity (Études de la vélocité Op. 299), Nouveau Gradus ad Parnassum Op. 822 (1854 – 46 studies), and Pianoforte-Schule, op.500.
  • Some of his pupils: Franz Liszt, Sigismund Thalberg, and Stephen Heller.

Portrait of Carl Czerny 
Lithograph by Josef Kriehuber, Photographed by Peter Geymayer, 1833. [ 1 ]


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Gede~commonswiki.  "Kriehuber, Josef, and photograph by Peter Geymayer of Carl Czerny, 1833."  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 2 Oct. 2005.  Web.  16 Sept. 2015.  Public Domain.
Additional References:
  • Lindeman, Stephen D., and George Barth.  "Czerny, Carl."  Oxford Music Online.  Oxford University Press, 2007 – 2015.  Web.  16 Sept. 2015.
  • "Biography of Carl Czerny."  Hanon-Online.  Hanon-Online, 2010 – 2015.  Web.  16 Sept. 2015.
  • "Carl Czerny: in the Shadow of Beethoven."  The Free Library.  Queen’s Quarterly and Gale, Cengage Learning, 1997.  Web.  16 Sept. 2015.
  • "Piano Studies by Czerny."  Piano Exercises.  Piano Exercises and Riff Spot, 2012.  Web.  16 Sept. 2015.

Lowell Mason (1792 – 1872) — American Sacred Music Composer, Anthologist, Music Educator

  • Composed over 1600 Hymns and held the title "Father of American Church Music."
  • He served as the president of the Handel and Haydn Society.
  • Music Director of the Essex Street Church, the Park Street Church, and the Hanover Street Church (Bowdoin Street Church).
  • In 1828 began teaching children music adapting a similar philosophy as Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, a swiss reformer who believed that children learn better through direct experience than rote instruction .
  • In 1832 He formed Boston Academy of Music and served as its head. The success of this Academy led him to become an advocate for music instruction in public schools.
  • Served as Superintendent of Music for the Boston Schools. In support of his work he wrote Manual of the Boston Academy of Music (1834) and created teacher training seminars known as Musical Convention from 1836 - 1851.
  • In 1855 was awarded an honorary doctorate from NYU.

Portrait of Lowell Mason. [ 1 ]


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RJHall.  "Portrait of Lowell Mason."  Scan.  Wikipedia.Org.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 23 March 2005.  Web. 9 Oct. 2015.  Public Domain. 
Additional References:
  • Eskew. Harry, and Carol A. Pemberton.  "Lowell Mason."  Oxford Music Online.  Oxford University Press, 2007 – 2016.  Web.  9 Oct 2015.
  • "Lowell Mason."  HymnTime.  HymnTime.Com, 28 Nov. 2015.  Web.  9 Oct. 2015.
  • "Lowell Mason."  Hymnary.  Hymnary.Org, n.d.  Web.  9 Oct. 2015.
  • Pratt, Michael, Dr.  "A Biography of Lowell Mason: The Father of American Music Education."  MicahelPratt.Wordpress.  Pratt Music Co., 4 Sept. 2009.  Web.  9 Oct. 2015.
Page 2 of 7 pages

[ CLOSE ]
 

Additional References:
  • Mastehead Image: O’Donnell, Dylan.  "Piano Strings."  Photograph.  Deography.  Dylan O’Donnell, 1 Nov. 2010.  Web.  18 June 2015.  Public Domain.
  • Mandalatrece, Jim Doney.  "History of an Ascended Master, His Connection with Essenes, and The Secrecy of The Kanon."  ThaKanon.  Jim Doney Mandalatrece, n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • Blaise, Gary.  "The Early String Keyboards."  Gary Blaise.  Gary Blaise Early Keyboard Instruments, n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "History of Classical Music."  Naxos.  Naxos Digital Services Ltd., n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "History of the Piano."  Piano Technicians Guild.  Piano Technicians Guild, Inc. n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "Development of the Piano."  Bluebook of Piano.  Bluebook of Pianos, 1933 – 2015.  18 June 2015.
  • Estrella, Steven G.  "Stylistic Timeline of Music History."  Steven Estrella.  Steven G. Estrella, 2013.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "The History of Graphical Music Notation."  Block Museum.  Mary and Leigh Block Museum of Art, n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "The Piano Time Line: A Chronological History."  Concert Pitch Piano.  Concert Pitch Piano Services, 2000 – 2015.  Web.  18 June. 2015.
  • "History of the Piano."  Piano Tuners.  The UK Piano Pages, 1996 – 2015.  Web.  18 June. 2015.
  • Weinstock, Ron.  "A Personal List of Ten Great Blues Pianists."  In a Blue Mood.  In a Blue Mood, 25 Sept. 2009.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "Romantic Music."  Essential Humanities.  Essential Humanities, 2008 – 2013.  Web.  19 June 2015.
  • "List of Romantic-Era Composers."  Wikipedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 15 Sept. 2015.  Web.  18 Sept. 2015.
  • Duchen, Jessica.  "Top 20: The World’s Greatest Pianists."  Sinfini Music.  Sinfini Music, 23 April 2014.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • Solomon, Jon.  "The Ten Best Jazz Pianists of All Time."  Westword.  Denver Westword, LLC., 27 Aug. 2013.  18 June 2015.
  • Sturm, Connie Arrau, Debra Brubaker Burs, and Anita Jackson, eds.  "Annotated Bibliography of Sources on the History of Piano Technique and Piano Pedagogy."  Piano Technique.  Piano Technique.Net, n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • Groves Music Online for Music Research.  Oxford Music Online.  Oxford University Press, 2007 – 2015.  Web.  June – December 2015.
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