MUSIC THROUGH THE AGES

Development Of The Piano: A Timeline
Tracing the roots of the piano to the very beginning of consciousness,
when man first became aware of sound.
EVOLUTION OF THE INSTRUMENT
Page 4 of 6 pages

Stein Nameboard Plaque. [ 1 ]

Johann (Georg) Andreas Stein (1728 – 1792) – German Keyboard Instrument Maker, Organist, whose many experimental contributions to the piano rival its inventor, Bartolomeo Cristofori.


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mattes.  “Frère et Soeur Stein Augsbourg à Vienne“ an einem Instrument – Basil, Musikmuseum.”  Photograph.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 28 Sept. 2012.  Web.  5 Feb. 2016.  CC BY 2.0 DE
Additional References:
  • Latcham, Michael.  "Stein, Johann (Georg) Andreas."  Oxford Music Online.  Oxford University Press, 2007 – 2015.  Web.  14 Sept. 2015.

Johann Christoph Zumpe's Square Piano, c. 1776.  [ 1 ]

The “twelve apostles’ arrive in England, men from Gottfried Silbermann’s workshop, which had closed because of the Seven Year’s War. This marked the beginning of England’s role in the development of the piano, with Johannes Zumpe creating smaller, compact square pianos (the first appearing c. 1766). A few instruments survive the period, despite their immediate popularity.


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Sguastevi.  "Zumpe Piano, in the Museu de la Música de Barcelona, 1776."  Photograph.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 15 June 2015.  Web.  14 Oct. 2015.  CC BY-SA 3.0

Sébastien Érard (1752 – 1831) arrived in Paris. He apprenticed under a harpsichord-maker until his talents surpassed his master, which led to his subsequent release. He then worked for another instrument-maker who commissioned him to build an instrument that would be hailed by all of Paris. With his reputation cemented, the Duchesse de Villeroy became his patron and provided him with a workshop, fulfilling Érard’s desire to remain independent.

Portrait of Sébastien Érard
by H. Pottin. [ 1 ]


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Pottin, H. and uploaded by Mu.  "Portrait of Sébastien Érard."  Print.  Original in Bibliothèque Nationale de France.  Commons Wikimedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 9 March 2008.  Web.  9 Oct. 2015.  Public Domain.
Additional References:
  • "Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History."  Met Museum.  The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000 – 2015.  Web.  15 Sept. 2015.
  • Centre Sébastien Erard.  Centre Sébastien Erard, n.d.  Web. 15 Sept. 2015.
  • Waller, John Francis, et al.  The Imperial Dictionary of Universal Biography: A Series of Original Memoirs of Distinguished Men, of All Ages and All Nations, Part 4.  Edinburgh: William Mackenzie, 1857.  Google Books.  Web. 15 Sept 2015.
  • Dolge, Alfred.  Pianos and Their Makers: A Comprehensive History of the Development of the Piano from the Monochord to the Concert Grand Player Piano, Volume 1.  Covina: Covina Publishing Company, 1911.  Google Books.  Web. 15 Sept. 2015.

In London, at the age of 33, J.C. Bach performed the first public recital on a piano, a square grand built by Johannes Zumpe.

Érard built his first five-octave bichord piano (presumably based on the Zumpe Square) for the Duchesse de Villeroy.


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Additional References:
  • Macnutt, Richard.  "Erard."  Oxford Music Online.  Oxford University Press, 2007 – 2015.  Web.  14 Sept. 2015.

Érard built a harpsichord known as the clavecin mécanique. Soon after he started successfully marketing his five-octave pianos.

“German action,” or Prellmechanik, ascribed to Johann Stein, first conceived as early as 1769 and refined during the 1770s.  By 1781, hammers mounted directly on the keys.

Overwhelmed by all the requests, Érard and his brother, Jean-Baptiste Érard (1749 – 1826), opened a shop together, eventually calling it Érard Fréres (also known as the house of Érard). Over the years, Érard obtained numerous patents on the pianoforte and harp.

The Luthiers of Paris—losing business due to Érard’s success—tried to shut him down as a nonmember of the guild. As a result, Érard was awarded a special dispensation from Louis XVI to continue making instruments.

Today on the 5th of February, 1785, the King of Versailles states, that sir Sebastian Érard is permitted to enhance the quality of the piano-forte, by means of by him invented methods, which has already resulted in this instrument being favoured above the ones made in England […]
Signed: Louis XVI, Co-signed: Baron de Breteuil [ 1 ]


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Janmaat, Fritz.  "About Erard."  Maison Erard.  Maison Erard, n.d.  Web.  15 Sept. 2015.

Due to the French Revolution, Érard moved to London in 1792 and opened a shop (though records showing he began doing business as early as 1786); along with pianos, he began manufacturing harps in which he made many improvements and was awarded many patents.


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Additional References:
  • "Sébastian Érard (1752)."  Butchoff.  Butchoff Antiques, 2012.  Web.  16 Sept. 2015.
Page 4 of 6 pages

[ CLOSE ]
 

Additional References:
  • Mastehead Image: O’Donnell, Dylan.  "Piano Strings."  Photograph.  Deography.  Dylan O’Donnell, 1 Nov. 2010.  Web.  18 June 2015.  Public Domain.
  • Mandalatrece, Jim Doney.  "History of an Ascended Master, His Connection with Essenes, and The Secrecy of The Kanon."  ThaKanon.  Jim Doney Mandalatrece, n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • Blaise, Gary.  "The Early String Keyboards."  Gary Blaise.  Gary Blaise Early Keyboard Instruments, n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "History of Classical Music."  Naxos.  Naxos Digital Services Ltd., n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "History of the Piano."  Piano Technicians Guild.  Piano Technicians Guild, Inc. n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "Development of the Piano."  Bluebook of Piano.  Bluebook of Pianos, 1933 – 2015.  18 June 2015.
  • Estrella, Steven G.  "Stylistic Timeline of Music History."  Steven Estrella.  Steven G. Estrella, 2013.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "The History of Graphical Music Notation."  Block Museum.  Mary and Leigh Block Museum of Art, n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "The Piano Time Line: A Chronological History."  Concert Pitch Piano.  Concert Pitch Piano Services, 2000 – 2015.  Web.  18 June. 2015.
  • "History of the Piano."  Piano Tuners.  The UK Piano Pages, 1996 – 2015.  Web.  18 June. 2015.
  • Weinstock, Ron.  "A Personal List of Ten Great Blues Pianists."  In a Blue Mood.  In a Blue Mood, 25 Sept. 2009.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • "Romantic Music."  Essential Humanities.  Essential Humanities, 2008 – 2013.  Web.  19 June 2015.
  • "List of Romantic-Era Composers."  Wikipedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 15 Sept. 2015.  Web.  18 Sept. 2015.
  • Duchen, Jessica.  "Top 20: The World’s Greatest Pianists."  Sinfini Music.  Sinfini Music, 23 April 2014.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • Solomon, Jon.  "The Ten Best Jazz Pianists of All Time."  Westword.  Denver Westword, LLC., 27 Aug. 2013.  18 June 2015.
  • Sturm, Connie Arrau, Debra Brubaker Burs, and Anita Jackson, eds.  "Annotated Bibliography of Sources on the History of Piano Technique and Piano Pedagogy."  Piano Technique.  Piano Technique.Net, n.d.  Web.  18 June 2015.
  • Groves Music Online for Music Research.  Oxford Music Online.  Oxford University Press, 2007 – 2015.  Web.  June – December 2015.
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